Internet Terminology and Definitions
Prepared by Steven C. Perkins (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Table of Contents
BASIC DEFINITIONS |
ACCESS METHODS |
INTERNET TOOLS |
- the name given to the collective electronic network of computers and
computer networks which are inter-connected throughout the world -
started with the ARPAnet at the US Dept. of Defense.
- the name given to the computer network which carries newsgroups -
newsgroups are arranged in heirarchies based loosely on subject matter -
the USENET is often confused with the INTERNET in the news media -
started by two students at Duke University.
- WorldWideWeb - WWW - W3
- the name given to the collection of computers which serve
information in hypertext format to the INTERNET - invented by Dr. Tim
Berners-Lee, at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN), who
wrote the first hyper text transfer protocol daemon (HTTPD) and the
first hyper text markup language (HTML) browser, as a way to allow
nuclear physicists to exchange working papers over the computer
- HTTPD - Hyper-text Transfer Protocol Daemon
- a computer program which manages the transfer of hyper-text and
multimedia documents over the INTERNET.
- HTML - Hyper Text Markup Language
- the text markup language used to insert tags which allow a Web
browser to correctly display a hyper-text document. HTML1, HTML +,
HTML 2 and HTML 3 are versions of HTML in use at this time. HTML is a
subset of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) first invented
to display legal texts and now the world standard for large
- VRML - Virtual Reality Modeling Language
- a tagging language for conveying three dimensional information over
the Internet using a VRML browser.
- documents which contain links to other documents within them -
footnotes are a form of hypertext link.
- documents which contain text, sound, graphics and video elements
that are all capable of being displayed to the user.
- documents which combine hypertext links and multimedia elements.
- the network news transfer protocol daemon which serves USENET
newsgroups across the Internet.
- NNTP Server
- the computer which you connect to to receive USENET newsgroups and
post USENET news articles.
- the Domain Name System which identifies each computer as a network
node on the Internet using an internet protocol address system to
translate from domain names to IP numbers and vice-versa.
- DNS Server
- the computer you use to access the DNS to allow you to contact other
computers on the Internet.
- Frequently Asked Questions document which answers FAQs about various
- RFC - Request for Comments
- a document which defines Internet operating protocols - despite the
name it is more a statement of agreed standards than a request.
- Internet Access Provider (IAP)/Internet Service Provider (ISP)
- an organization or commercial enterprise which provides access to
- a computer connection that is brought up and brought down as needed
- a simple version is dialing in to a servive provider over a modem as a
dumb terminal - SLIP and PPP can also be dial-up connections - also
known as a switched connection.
- Dumb Terminal
- when a computer is running a terminal emulation program while
connected to another computer.
- SLIP - Serial Line Internet Protocol
- a non-standard method of electronically connecting a remote computer
to an IP network as a node on the network most popular method at present
to use graphical browsers on the Internet - first used to connect ham
radios to the Internet.
- PPP - Point to Point Protocol
- an Internet standard for electronically connectiong a remote
computer to an IP network - the method slowly replacing SLIP.
- a method for directly connecting a computer to a network in the same
physical location - much faster connection than SLIP or PPP.
- Wireless Network
- a method using infra-red, ultra-violet or radio waves, of connecting
computers into a network.
- ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network
- a digital telephone network that allows personal home computers to
connect to remote networks.
- a device that modulates and demodulates telephone toned to allow for
the multiplexing of information on the telephone network.
- Cable Modem
- a device that allows a computer to connect to a cable television
system and connect to a computer network - cable modems work at speeds
approaching Ethernet connections - probable wide-spread future way to
connect to the Internet.
- FTP - File Transfer Protocol
- a method of serving and obtaining files over the Internet.
- a method of logging into another computer as a terminal on that
- NFS - Network File System
- a set of protocols that allow transparent access to a remote
computers file system - another type is the Andrew File System (AFS).
- a method of serving or retrieving files over the Internet - it has
largely been replaced by the Web.
- a client program that retrieves documents and other materials from
an HTTPD server and displays them in accord with the HTML specification
- MOSAIC was the first widely available browser - CELLO was the second
browser - NETSCAPE is the most used browser at this time.
- a specification for a program that implements a "socket" connection
under the MS Windows environment - a winsock is needed for SLIP or PPP
connections under WINDOWS.
- a program used on Macintosh computers to provide socket connections
for SLIP and PPP connections.
- a software application that allows one to exchange messages with
- IRC - Internet Relay Chat
- a method for serving and retrieving connections for real-time
conferencing over computer networks.
- WAIS - Wide Area Information Service
- a method of finding information on the Internet.
- a system to find files available for retrieval by FTP.
- a system for finding files available from GOPHER servers.
- White Pages
- lists of Internet users
- a terminal emulation of an IBM 3270 terminal.
- a terminal emulation of a DEC VT100 terminal.
- a program for sending and receiving video and audio over the
Internet - also contains a conferencing program and whiteboard facility.
Discussion Groups *
Telnet, FTP, gopher *
Ka-Neng Au (email@example.com)
Updated April 14, 1997