Links & Acknowledgments

This page contains references to sources and links to other resources, both on the web and in book form, devoted to the Perreux Variation and to other lines of the Two Knights Defense. The Perreux Variation, after all, may not be for everyone, and I'd like to offer what guidance I can to those interested in other lines of play after 1.e4 e5 2.Bc4 Nf6 3.d4 exd4 4.Nf3 Nc6.

The Gambit Line
The Main Line
The Lolli Attack
The Queen Check
Early Divergences
Links & Acknowledgments
Games in PGN Format

Game Collections

Max Burkett's Max Lange PGN File
A great collection on the Max Lange.

Pittsburgh Chess Archives
The Pitt Archives has many files in various formats on the Two Knights Defense and specific lines, such as the Fried Liver Attack.

Two Knights Defense Games
3750 games to play over online from Hechiceros. Click on "Aperturas"-->"Defensa de los Dos Caballos" or "Ataque Max Lange" or

Books and Articles

Acers, Jude and George S. Laven. The Italian Gambit System. Trafford Publishing, 2003. Gives relatively recent though generally rather shallow coverage of practically every line in the Open Two Knights (with White d4). Does offer some useful insights on the Koltanowski Gambit and related lines. The additional repertoire material is not especially worthwhile, except perhaps for beginning players.

Baker, Chris. A Startling Chess Opening Repertoire. London: Everyman Chess, 1998. Useful (if overly selective) coverage of the Max Lange Attack and Koltanowski Gambit from the White perspective. The remaining repertoire is fairly useful if generally more safe than "startling."

Beliavsky, Alexander and Adrian Mikhalchishin. The Two Knights Defense. London: Batsford, 1999. Very poorly put together book (seems rushed to the publisher) with occasionally strong moments. Uses sample games and some analysis to cover practically every line in the Two Knights. Does offer occasional strong insights, though, so worth checking out despite numerous problems.

Emms, John. Play the Open Games as Black: What to Do When White Avoids the Ruy Lopez. London: Gambit, 2000. Excellent coverage of all Two Knights lines from the Black perspective.

Estrin, Yakov. The Two Knights Defense. Trans. K. P. Neat. London: Batsford 1983. There are various versions in multiple languages and editions of Estrin's work. Estrin's analysis became widely circulated in multiple editions and languages through the 70s and 80s. It is still vital and valuable, especially since some lines he discusses receive scant treatment later.

Harding, Tim. The Evans Gambit and a System versus the Two Knights Defense. Second Edition. Chess Digest, 1996. A very useful if selective repertoire coverage of the Modern d4/e5 lines of the Two Knights.

Nunn, John. Secrets of Grandmaster Chess. 1997. pp.77-87. Discusses the game Corden-Nunn, Birmingham 1975 in great depth.

Petrosian, Tigran and Yakov Estrin. Zweispringerspiel im Nachzuge. Hamburg 1966.

Pinski, Jan. The Two Knights Defense. London: Everyman Chess, 2003. Probably the most generally useful current book available. The analysis is generally shallow.

Soltis, Andrew. Winning with the Giuoco Piano and the Max Lange Attack. 2nd Revised Edition. Chess Digest, 1996 (1st edition 1992). Offers some surprising analysis from White's perspective of the Max Lange lines, though I wonder how well it holds up to close scrutiny since it does seem overly optimistic.

Van der Tak, A. C. and Jesus Nogueiras. "King's Pawn Opening: Max Lange Attack." New in Chess Yearbook 37 (1995): 94-99. One of a number of articles to appear in New in Chess and NIC Yearbook. See their website for details.

Weeramantry, Sunil. "Opening Preparation." Chess Cafe's The Chess Coach 13. Download a zip file. Discusses the Two Knights Modern.

Zagorovsky, Vladimir. Romantic Chess Openings. London: Batsford 1982. A classic, if now generally out of date and shallow.

Other Variations of the Two Knights Defense

Max Lange and Main Lines (5.O-O)

Hard Chess by Mark Morss
USCF Senior Master Mark Morss has written several articles on the Two Knights Defense as part of his Hard Chess column for the Campbell Report web site. They include very extensive annotations and commentary, mainly of the author's own games. I recommend them for close study of particular lines.

A Lazy Player's Guide to the Scotch Gambit
This web site includes good coverage of the Two Knights Defense by way of transposition from the Scotch Gambit.

Ataque Max Lange by Marata Linges Dante
Spanish-language analysis from Hechiceros.

Max Lange Attack from NJSCF site by Pete Tamburro
Good introduction to the main lines for amateur players.

Interesting Byways in the Classic Open Games by Tim Harding
A useful discussion of the literature on the Modern Two Knights.

The Scotch Gambit from Tromso Sjakklubb
Good analysis for club players.

Max Zavanelli and the Sleeping Beauty by Victor Palciauskas.
This is a fascinating game in the Max Lange annotated by Max Zavanelli himself, with Palciaskas's introduction. Worth playing over. Also available from Palciauskas's web site.

Modern Variation (5.e5)

Exeter Chess Club Opening Handouts on the Two Knights Defense
Covers the Two Knights from the Black perspective, along with ways of playing against White alternatives.

C55 from the Tromso Sjakklubb
Good coverage of the Keidanz lines for the club player.

More about the Two Knights Modern by Mark Morss

"Opening Preparation" by Sunil Weeramantry, in Chess Cafe's The Chess Coach 13. Download a zip file.

Other Lines

Two Knights Defense, Wilkes-Barre Variation
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Nf6 4.Ng5 Bc5 5.Bxf7+ Ke7 and 6.Bd5 . .. See also the 6.Bb3 Line.

Two Knights Defense and a Repertoire as Black from the Exeter Chess Club
A useful overview of lines for the beginner to club player.

Defensa de los Dos Caballos from Hechiceros
Focuses on 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Nf6 4.Ng5 d5 5.exd5 Na5.

Two Knights -- Amazing Counter-Attack by Tim Harding
Covers 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Nf6 4.Ng5 Nxe4!?

Opening Lanes #62 by Gary Lane
Discusses 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Nf6 4.Ng5 d5 5.exd5 Na5.

Two Knights Defense by Tim Harding
In three parts, covering the classic 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Nf6 4.Ng5.
Part One, Part Two, and Part Three.

Site dedie a l'ouverture Traxler
In French with lots of Traxler stuff from the Black perspective.

The Fegatello Attack by Paul Valle
A complete analysis of 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Nf6 4.Ng5 d5 5.exd5 Nxd5?! 6.Nxf7!?


Contact: Michael Goeller,
Last modified: May 1, 2002
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