Rutgers School of Environmental and Biological Sciences [Dept. of Entomology]

Species Found Positive for West Nile Virus as of 15 October 2003

This is a compendium of species found positive for having been exposed to the West Nile virus.  This list

  • does NOT indicate that West Nile is necessarily fatal to the species listed but simply that at least one was brought dead to a state health department and tested. That organism may have died from other causes.
  • Some species on the list were also caught live and found to carry antibody (marked with L). 
  • Please also note that viral competency cannot be inferred merely by being on this list.

This list is derived from several sources, most heavily from those of the USGS National Wildlife Health Centers and ProMed lists.  Species listed with an asterisk (*) were of initial individuals in captivity and may or may not be from the New World.  Errors or updates can be reported to Lisa Reed at 

See the distribution based on USDA's Animal Plant Health Inspection Service's map (Acrobat Reader required).  See also the West Nile maps of (archived to 2000) or the current maps at USGS.

Common Name - Avian
American Crow L Corvus brachyrhynchos
American Goldfinch Carduelis tristis
American Kestrel Falco sparverius
American Magpie * Pica hudsonia
American Robin Turdus migratorius
Andean Condor * Vultur gryphus
Bald Eagle * Haliaeetus leucocephalus
Baltimore Oriole Icterus galbula
Barred Owl Strix varia
Belted Kingfisher Ceryle alcyon
Black-capped Chickadee Poecile atricapilla
Black-crowned Night Heron * Nycticorax nycticorax
Black-footed Penguin * Sphenicus demersus
Blackpoll Warbler Dendroica striata
Black Skimmer Rynchops niger
Black-throated Blue Warbler Dendroica caerulescens
Black Vulture Coragyps atratus
Blue Jay Cyanocitta cristata
Blythe's Tragopan * Tragopan blythii
Boat-tailed Grackle Quiscalus major
Brewer's Blackbird Euphagus cyanocephalus
Broad-winged Hawk Buteo platypterus
Bronzed-winged Duck * Anas specularis
Brown Thrasher Toxostoma rufum
Brown-headed Cowbird Molothrus ater
Budgerigar * Melopsittacus undulatus
Canada Goose Branta canadensis
Canada Warbler Wilsonia canadensis
Carolina Chickadee Poecile carolinensis
Carolina Wren Thryothorus ludoviciantus
Cedar Waxwing Bombycilla cedrorum
Cockatiel * Nymphicus hollandicus
Cockatoo * Cacatua ?
Common Grackle Quiscalis quiscala
Common Ground Dove Columbina passerina
Common Nighthawk Chordeiles minor
Common Raven Corvus corax
Common Yellowthroat L Geothlypis trichas
Cooper's Hawk Accipiter cooperii
Dicksissel Calandra pratensis
Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus
Domestic Chicken Gallus sp.
Domestic Duck (Peking) Anas platyrhynchos
Domestic Goose Anser sp.
Domestic Turkey Megagallus sp.
Eastern Bluebird Sialia sialis
Eastern Phoebe Sayornis phoebe
Eastern Tufted Titmouse Baeolophus bicolor
Eastern Wild Turkey Meleagris gallopavo
European Starling Sturnus vulgaris
Fish Crow L Corvus ossifragus
Fox Sparrow Passerella iliaca
Chilean Flamingo * Phoenicopterus chilensis
Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos
Gray Catbird L Dumatella carolinensis
Great Black-backed Gull Larus marinus
Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias
Great Horned Owl Bubo virginianus
Great-tailed Grackle Quiscalus mexicanus
Green Heron Butorides virescens
Guanay Cormorant * Phalacrocorax bougainvillii
Hermit Thrush Catharus guttatus
Herring Gull Larus argentatus
Hooded Warbler Wilsonia citrina
House Finch Carpodacus mexicanus
House Sparrow L Passer domesticus
Impeyan Pheasants Lophophorus impeyanus
Killdeer Charadrius vociferus
Laughing Gull * Larus atricilla
Least Bittern Ixobrychus exilis
Loggerhead Shrike Lanius ludovicianus
Lorikeet Trichoglossus haemotod
Macaw * Ara sp.
Mallard * Anas platyrhynchos
Merlin Falco columbarius
Mississippi Sandhill Crane Grus canadensis pulla
Mourning Dove Zenaida macroura
Mute Swan Cygnus olor
Nashville Warbler Vermivora ruficapilla
Northern Cardinal Cardinalis cardinalis
Northern Flicker Colaptes auratus
Northern Mockingbird Mimus polyglottos
Northern Parula Parula americana
Osprey Pandion haliaetus
Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapillus
Parakeet * ?
Peacock * Pavo sp.
Peregrine Falcon * Falco peregrinus
Purple Finch Carpodacus purpureus
Purple Martin Progne subis
Red-headed Woodpecker Melanerpes erythrocephalus
Red-shouldered Hawk Buteo lineatus
Red-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis
Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus
Ring-billed Gull Larus delawarensis
Ring-necked Pheasant Phasianus colchicus
Rock Dove Columba livia
Ruby-throated Hummingbird Archilochus colubris
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres
Ruffed Grouse Bonasa umbellus
Rusty Blackbird Euphagus carolinus
Sanderling Calidris alba
Sandhill Crane * Grus canadensis
Savannah Sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis
Scarlet Ibis Eudocimus ruber
Sharp-shinned Hawk Accipiter striatus
Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus
Snowy Owl Nyctea scandia
Song Sparrow Melospiza melodia
Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus
Swallow-tailed Kite Elanoides forficatus
Varied Tit Sittiparus varius
Veery Catharus fuscescens
Virginia Rail Rallus limicola
Warbling Vireo Vireo gilvus
White-breasted Nuthatch Sitta carolinensis
White-crowned Pigeon Columba leucocephala
Wood Duck Aix sponsa
Wood Thrush Hylocichla mustelina
Yellow Warbler Dendroica petechia
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius
Yellow-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus americanus
Yellow-rumped Warbler Dendroica coronata
Zebra Finch Poephila guttata
Other Vertebrate Species:
Black Bear L Ursus americanus
Wolf Canis sp.
White-tailed Deer L Odocoileus virginianus
Rocky Mountain Goat Oreamnos americanus
Big Brown Bat Eptesicus fuscus
Little Brown Bat Myotis lucifugus
Domestic Horse Equus
Bovine Bos taurus
Domesticated Llama Lama glama
Domestic Rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus (?)
Domestic Cat Felis domesticus
Domestic Dog Canis lupus familiaris
Squirrel Sciurus sp
Eastern Chipmunk Tamias striatus
Striped Skunk Mephitis mephitis
Harbor Seal Phoca vitulina
American Alligator Alligator mississippiensis
Barbary Macaque Macaca sylvanus
Mosquito Species: from CDC's
? Culex erraticus
"Florida SLE Mosquito" Culex nigripalpus
Northern House Mosquito Culex pipiens
Southern House Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus
White-dotted Mosquito Culex restuans
Unbanded Saltmarsh Mosquito Culex salinarius
? Culex tarsalis
? Culex territans
? Ochlerotatus atlanticus/tormentor
Rockpool Mosquito Ochlerotatus atropalpus
Woodland Pool Mosquito Ochlerotatus canadensis
Brown Saltmarsh Mosquito Ochlerotatus cantator
Pale Marsh Mosquito Ochlerotatus dorsalis
? Ochlerotatus fitchii
? Ochlerotatus infimatus
Rockpool Mosquito Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus
? Ochlerotatus provocans
Saltmarsh Mosquito Ochlerotatus sollicitans
? Ochlerotatus sticticus
? Ochlerotatus stimulans
Black Salt Marsh Mosquito Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus
Eastern Treehole Mosquito Ochlerotatus triseriatus
Three Striped  Mosquito Ochlerotatus trivitattus
Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus
Little Smokey Mosquito Aedes cinereus
Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti
Floodwater ("Vexans") Mosquito Aedes vexans
? Anopheles atropos
? Anopheles barberi
? Anopheles bradleyi/crucians
Mottled-winged Anopheles Anopheles punctipennis
Common Malaria Mosquito Anopheles quadrimaculatus
? Anopheles walkeri
Cattail Mosquito Coquillettidia perturbans
? Culiseta inornata
Cedar Swamp/Black-tailed Mosquito Culiseta melanura
Crabhole Mosquito Deinocerites cancer
White-lined Mosquito Orthopodomyia signifera
? Psorophora ciliata
Dark Ricefield Mosquito Psorophora columbiae
Big Woods Mosquito Psorophora ferox
? Psoraphora hawardii
Sapphire-lined Mosquito Uranotaenia sapphirina


States/Provinces where positive animals (mosquitoes, birds, and/or mammals) have been found:

(See the map at CDC:

Primary Sources include:

©2008 Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.
Last modified: 18 March 2013,