PRACTICE ITEMS FOR TEST 1

1. THESE ITEMS ARE PRIMARILY FROM THE BOOK.
PRACTICE ITEMS FROM LECTURE HAVE BEEN REGULARLY
BEEN PRESENTED IN LECTURE.

2. THESE ITEMS HAVE NOT BEEN REVIEWED QUITE
AS CAREFULLY AS THOSE ON THE ACTUAL TEST,
SO IT IS SOMEWHAT MORE LIKELY FOR ERRORS
AND TYPOS TO HAVE CREPT IN HERE.  THEY HAVE ALSO
NOT BEEN AS CAREFULLY SCREENED FOR AMBIGUITIES
OR JUST PLAIN POOR QUESTIONS.

STILL, THEY ARE GOOD PREP FOR THE TEST.

3. Jarret and I will be glad to discuss any of these items with you.
However, to do so, please bring your textbook, and be prepared to
discuss the page on which the test item indicates that the
answer appears.





1.    The example cited in your text regarding how the different attributions a person will make for his or her spouse's acid remark depend on the happiness of the marriage portrays what concept?
a.    Social behavior is a function of the objective situation.
b.    Social behavior is a function of how a situation is construed.
c.    Social behavior is a function of both the objective situation and how it is construed.
d.    None of the above.
Answer:   Page: 4     Type:  FAC


2.    Imagine you are approached by a large dog. You assume the dog is unfriendly, so you start screaming at it to go away. The dog assumes you want to hurt it, so it defends itself against you by biting your ankle. This is an example of a
a.    self-fulfilling belief.
b.    self-aggrandizing belief.
c.    self-debilitating belief.
d.    self-worth belief.
Answer:    Page: 4     Type:  CON


3.    Which of the following topics was not listed in the text as an example of what social psychologists study?
a.    love
b.    conformity
c.    intelligence
d.    attitudes
Answer:   Page: 5     Type:  FAC



4.    According to the text, values enter the work of social psychology when
a.    researchers collect data for their studies.
b.    researchers present the results of their studies.
c.    researchers summarize their studies.
d.    researchers choose the topics of their studies.
Answer:    Page: 12     Type:  FAC


5.    Hastrof and Cantrol (1954) found that Princeton students identified twice as many Dartmouth violations as Dartmouth when each watched the game. This suggests
a.    humans' tendency to prejudge reality based on expectations.
b.    humans' inability to be objective when watching sports.
c.    football players' brutality.
d.    football players' inability to be objective when watching sports.
Answer:    Page: 14     Type:  FAC


6.    The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next is a definition of ______.
a.    nationality
b.    race
c.    social representations
d.    culture
Answer:   Page: 14     Type:  DEF


7.    Socially shared beliefs – widely held ideas and values, including our assumptions and cultural ideologies, is a definition of _____.
a.    nationality
b.    race
c.    social representations
d.    culture
Answer:     Page: 14     Type:  DEF


8.    When asked who you think will win the next presidential election, you don't know. After the election results are reported though, you claim it was obvious all along. This is an example of
a.    retrospective bias.
b.    information bias.
c.    prediction bias.
d.    hindsight bias.
Answer:     Page: 18     Type:  CON


9.    Your text discusses how easy it is to blame ourselves after the fact, such as when we have a research paper due at the end of the semester, and we tell ourselves that we should have started it earlier because we knew how busy we would be at the end of the semester. This is an example of the
a.    retrospective bias.
b.    information bias.
c.    prediction bias.
d.    hindsight bias.
Answer:     Page: 19     Type:  CON


10.    A testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events is a
a.    statement.
b.    bias.
c.    correlation.
d.    hypothesis.
Answer:    Page: 21     Type:  DEF


11.    Research done in natural, real-life settings outside the laboratory is referred to as
a.    correlational research.
b.    experimental research.
c.    laboratory research.
d.    field research.
Answer:     Page: 22     Type:  DEF


12.    A psychiatrist tells you she is interested in determining if clinically depressed individuals' condition improves more so with 20 or 40 milligrams of Prozac. She decides to administer 20 milligrams to a random half of her clients who have been diagnosed with depression, and 40 milligrams to the other half of her clients who have been diagnosed with depression. She finds that after 6 months, the clients who took 40 milligrams of Prozac are significantly less depressed than those clients who took 20 milligrams of Prozac. What type of study is the psychiatrist conducting?
a.    correlational research
b.    experimental research
c.    controlled research
d.    hypothetical research
Answer:   Page: 22     Type:  CON


13.    Because of influences that might bias the results, polls do not _____ voting; they only _____ public opinion as of the moment they are taken.
a.    describe; predict
b.    predict; describe
c.    reflect; determine
d.    determine; reflect
Answer:     Page: 25     Type:  FAC


14.    When Americans were asked whether the Japanese government should be allowed to set limits on how much American industry can sell in Japan,
a.    most said, “yes, definitely.”
b.    most said, “no opinion.”
c.    most asked for more information before indicating their opinion.
d.    The responses depended on whether respondents had first been asked about America's right to set limits on Japanese trade in America.
Answer:      Page: 26     Type:  FAC

15.    Research on the wording of survey questions suggests that
a.    how questions are framed influences how they are answered.
b.    how questions are framed has very little influence on how they are answered.
c.    wording is an unimportant element of survey research.
d.    framing the questions differently will not influence the results.
Answer:     Page: 28     Type:  FAC


16.    The experimental factor that a research manipulates in a study is called a ______ variable.
a.    control
b.    independent
c.    dependent
d.    correlational
Answer:     Page: 28     Type:  DEF


17.    Myers described aeronautical engineers' use of wind tunnels as an analogy for the use of _____ in social psychology.
a.    surveys
b.    statistics
c.    correlations
d.    experiments
Answer:     Page: 28     Type:  FAC


18.    A study of _____ women by Gortmaker and colleagues in 1993 found that they were less likely to be married and earn high salaries than women in a comparison group.
a.    racial minority
b.    sexual minority
c.    obese
d.    disabled
Answer:     Page: 28     Type:  FAC


19.    Even after correcting for any differences in aptitude test scores, race, and parental income, Gortmaker and colleagues (1993) found that obese women's incomes were _____ a year _____ average.
a.    $7,000; above
b.    $7,000; below
c.    $1,000; above
d.    $1,000; below
Answer:   Page: 28     Type:  FAC



20.    The variable being measured, so-called because it may depend on manipulations of another variable, is called the ______ variable.
a.    experimental
b.    control
c.    independent
d.    dependent
Answer:    Page: 30     Type:  DEF


21.    An experimenter exposes participants to different room temperature levels to determine its effect on aggression. Aggression is the
a.    independent variable.
b.    dependent variable.
c.    control variable.
d.    confounding variable.
Answer:     Page: 30     Type:  CON


22.    Putting participants in one of two conditions by flipping a coin illustrates
a.    random sampling.
b.    sampling bias.
c.    random assignment.
d.    representative sampling.
Answer:     Page: 30     Type:  CON


23.    _____ helps researchers infer cause and effect.
a.    Random sampling
b.    Random assignment
c.    Random surveying
d.    None of the above
Answer:     Page: 30     Type:  FAC


24.    _____ helps researchers generalize to a population.
a.    Random sampling
b.    Random assignment
c.    Random surveying
d.    None of the above
Answer:    Page: 30     Type:  FAC



25.    For your senior thesis, you conduct a study that examines the role of exercise on depression alleviation. You assign the first 50 people who are motivated to sign up for your study to the experimental group, and the second group of 50 people who signed up, although much later, to the control group. After one month, you find that the experimental group (who exercised three times a week on average) is significantly less depressed than the control group (who exercised one time a week on average). Although you may be tempted to conclude that exercise helps stave off depression, you cannot because of a lack of ____ in your study.
a.    random sampling
b.    random assignment
c.    random surveying
d.    objectivity
Answer:     Page: 30     Type:  CON


26.    The degree to which an experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations refers to _____.
a.    realistic experimentation
b.    televised reality
c.    mundane reality
d.    experimental realism
Answer:    Page: 31     Type:  DEF


27.    _____ is an ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.
a.    Demand characteristics
b.    Deception
c.    Mundane realism
d.    Informed consent
Answer:    Page: 31     Type:  DEF



  1. The belief that others are paying more attention to one's appearance and behavior than they really are is referred to as the _____ effect.
    1. transparency
    2. audience
    3. spotlight
    4. headlight

Answer:    Page: 40     Type:  DEF

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  1. In Gilovich, Medvec, and Savitsky's (2000) study that had an undergraduate student enter a room wearing a Barry Manilow T-shirt, ____ percent of the other students noticed the T-shirt.
    1. 50
    2. 23
    3. 10
    4. 0

Answer:   Page: 40     Type:  FAC

 Your English literature professor is helping you to remember a character from a story when she or he asks you to compare ____ to this character.

    1. your mother
    2. your best friend
    3. yourself
    4. none of the above

Answer:    Page: 42     Type:  CON

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  1. Images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future are called our
    1. hoped-for selves.
    2. feared selves.
    3. possible selves.
    4. eventual selves.

Answer:   Page: 42     Type:  DEF

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  1. Self-concept is fed by our roles, our social identity, our comparison, and also
    1. rare stressors, such as a family crisis.
    2. daily experiences.
    3. everyday hassles.
    4. none of the above.

Answer:    Page: 44     Type:  FAC

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  1. Giving priority to the goals of one's groups, such as one's family or workplace, and defining one's identity accordingly is called
    1. cooperation.
    2. communality.
    3. collectivism.
    4. groupthink.

Answer:   Page: 46     Type:  DEF

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  1. A person from a(n) _____ culture is more likely to say “We went to the movies,” rather than a person from a(n) _____ culture, who is likely to say “I went to the movies.”
    1. individualistic, collectivistic
    2. collectivistic, individualistic
    3. self-centered, other-centered
    4. other-centered, self-centered

Answer:   Page: 46     Type:  FAC

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  1. Your self-esteem, were you to be in a(n) ______ culture, would correlate closely with what others think of you and your group.
    1. individualistic
    2. collectivistic
    3. self-centered
    4. other-centered

Answer: Page: 49     Type:  FAC

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  1. Kitayama and Markus (2000) have found that happiness comes from ______ for Japanese students.
    1. feeling close, friendly, and respectful
    2. feeling effective, superior, and proud
    3. feeling smart and creative
    4. none of the above

Answer: Page: 50     Type:  FAC

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  1. According to your textbook, self-esteem typically _____ in Japanese exchange students after they spend several months at a Canadian university. This suggests that self-concept becomes more individualized after visiting Western countries.
    1. decreases
    2. increases
    3. peaks and then drops sharply
    4. remains constant

Answer:     Page: 50     Type:  FAC

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  1. According to Wilson and Gilbert (2003), people often _____ predicting their future emotions.
    1. excel at
    2. experience great difficulty
    3. perform moderately well when
    4. both a and b, depending on the situation

Answer:    Page: 53     Type:  FAC

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  1. Studies of “affective forecasting” ask people to predict their future ______.
    1. school performance
    2. family situation
    3. income
    4. emotions

Answer: Page: 54     Type:  DEF

 

  1. Lynch and Bonnie (1994) have found that although about half of those individuals who currently smoke will also be smoking in five years, only ____ predicts they will be smoking in five years.
    1. 1 in 50
    2. 1 in 10
    3. 1 in 7
    4. 1 in 3

Answer    Page: 54     Type:  FAC

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  1. According to the text, we are prone to “impact bias,” or ____ the impact of emotion-causing events (such as finding out the results after being tested for HIV).
    1. failing to appreciate
    2. denying
    3. underestimating
    4. overestimating

Answer:    Page: 54     Type:  DEF

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  1. Education and persuasion tend to change what type of attitudes?
    1. internal
    2. external
    3. implicit
    4. explicit

Answer:   Page: 56     Type:  FAC

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  1. Practice that forms new habits, albeit slowly, tends to change what type of attitudes?
    1. internal
    2. external
    3. implicit
    4. explicit

Answer:  Page: 56     Type:  FAC

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  1. A sense that one is competent and effective refers to one's
    1. self-esteem.
    2. self-aggrandizement.
    3. self-worth.
    4. self-efficacy.

Answer: Page: 57     Type:  DEF

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  1. Researchers report a _____ correlation between persistence and self-efficacy.
    1. positive
    2. negative
    3. moderate
    4. zero

Answer  Page: 57     Type:  FAC

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  1. If your initial efforts to lose weight, stop smoking, or improve your grades succeed, your self-efficacy
    1. increases.
    2. decreases.
    3. stays the same.
    4. can eventually become stable.

Answer:   Page: 62     Type:  FAC

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  1. Heatherton and Vohs (2000) found that when threatened with failure on an aptitude test, people with ____ became significantly more antagonistic than before they were threatened.
    1. high self-esteem
    2. low self-esteem
    3. high self-efficacy
    4. low self-efficacy

Answer:  Page: 64     Type:  FAC

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  1. According to research reviewed in your text, those college students who experience more stress, anger, relationship problems, drug and alcohol use, and eating disorders than others are more likely to have a self-worth contingent upon
    1. internal sources.
    2. external sources.
    3. their hoped-for possible selves.
    4. their feared possible selves.

Answer:  Page: 65     Type:  FAC

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  1. Blaming the tree for getting in your way after you crashed the can into it is an example of
    1. poor self-control.
    2. poor self-efficacy
    3. poor self-esteem.
    4. a self-serving bias.
  2. Answer:      Page: 67     Type:  CON
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  1. Wilson and Ross (2001) found that when describing their old pre-college selves, university students offered _____ negative _____ positive statements.
    1. more; than
    2. less; than
    3. as many; as
    4. double; compared with

Answer:     Page: 68     Type:  FAC



  1. According to the text, many men assume women are flattered by repeated requests for dates, which women more often see as harassing. This is an example of
    1. arrogance.
    2. a lack of intuition.
    3. misattribution.
    4. miscommunication.

Answer:    Page: 85     Type:  FAC

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  1. Misattributions can help explain why the percent of American women who say they have been forced into unwanted sexual behavior is _____, whereas the percent of American men who say they have ever forced a women into a sexual act is _____.
    1. 91; 41
    2. 55; 35
    3. 23; 03
    4. 15; 01

Answer:  Page: 85     Type:  FAC

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  1. The theory that explains people's behavior by attributing it to internal dispositions or external situations is called
    1. dispositional theory.
    2. motivational theory.
    3. situational theory.
    4. attribution theory.

Answer: Page: 85     Type:  DEF

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  1. A fellow student is consistently late to class. You assume this is because he or she is lazy and unorganized. What type of attribution are you making for the other student's behavior?
    1. motivational
    2. dispositional
    3. situational
    4. b and c

Answer:     Page: 86     Type:  CON

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  1. When we try to explain Misha's behavior as she struggles with her computer, we might ask if she also has difficulty using other computers on campus. The answer to this question would provide us with information about
    1. consistency.
    2. distinctiveness.
    3. character.
    4. consensus.

Answer: Page: 87     Type:  CON

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  1. After reading a newspaper article about teenagers who illegally download music from the Internet, you conclude that those who engage in such behavior are morally bankrupt. It never occurs to you that the reason teenagers download music from the Internet is because they aren't able to afford the price of a compact disc or that because the temptation to download, coupled with the peer pressure to do so, is often great. Your thinking on this matter can be characterized by
    1. the false consensus bias.
    2. the misinformation effect.
    3. the fundamental attribution error.
    4. the dispositional bias.

Answer:     Page: 87-88     Type:  CON


  1. As an example of the power of the fundamental attribution error when it serves our self-interest, Ditto and colleagues (1997) conducted a study that involved having a woman write down her supposed impressions of a man. The experimenters found that when men were asked how much a woman liked them, the men
    1. believed her criticisms were honest.
    2. discounted her criticisms as a result of her being under orders to be negative.
    3. were insulted by her criticisms.
    4. none of the above.

Answer:    Page: 88     Type:  FAC

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  1. The perceptual analogy of figure and ground is an explanation for why we tend to underestimate the situational determinants of others' behavior but not our own. Another name for this explanation is the
    1. actor-observer difference.
    2. camera perspective bias.
    3. changing perspectives trend.
    4. self-awareness phenomenon.

Answer:   Page: 91     Type:  FAC

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  1. If a teenager doesn't seem to take responsibility for his or her actions, always creating excuses for coming home past curfew, blaming others for excessive spending, and acting like a victim of teachers when it comes to bad grades, his or her parents could encourage the teenager to take responsibility by becoming more
    1. situation-conscious.
    2. self-conscious.
    3. self-possessed.
    4. confident.

Answer:    Page: 93     Type:  CON

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  1. Because not all people at all time and in all settings underestimate situational influences, Jones has suggested the fundamental attribution error be called the
    1. correspondence bias.
    2. attribution bias.
    3. situational bias.
    4. none of the above.

Answer:   Page: 96     Type:  FAC

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  1. The “Kulechov effect” (named after a Russian film director) is another illustration of
    1. the principle of belief perseverance.
    2. confirmation bias.
    3. false memories.
    4. the principle that our minds actively construe reality.

Answer: Page: 101     Type:  CON

 

  1. Research has shown that explaining why an opposite theory may be true, for example, why a cautious person might be a better firefighter than a risk-taking person, _______ belief perseverance.
    1. increases
    2. maintains
    3. reduces
    4. heightens

Answer     Page: 102     Type:  FAC

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  1. Your summer vacation was perhaps not an overwhelmingly positive event, but during finals week, you remember it as a fantastic time. This is an example of
    1. perseverance bias.
    2. the fundamental attribution error.
    3. the correspondence bias.
    4. rosy retrospection.

Answer: Page: 104     Type:  CON

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  1. According to a study by Myers (2004), people in psychotherapy and self-improvement programs for weight-control, antismoking, and exercise who show only modest improvement claim
    1. a lack of any change.
    2. considerable change.
    3. rapid improvement, then a steady decline.
    4. modest change.

Answer:   Page: 105     Type:  FAC

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  1. Croxton and others (1984) found that -- if after talking to someone for 15minutes, you are told this person liked you -- you tend to recall the person as
    1. relaxed, confused, and happy.
    2. relaxed, comfortable, and unhappy.
    3. relaxed, comfortable, and happy.
    4. relaxed, confused, and unhappy.

Answer:  Page: 105     Type:  FAC

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  1. “Explicit” thinking that is deliberate, reflective, and conscious is called
    1. controlled processing.
    2. automatic processing.
    3. external processing.
    4. intentional processing.

Answer:  Page: 107     Type:  DEF

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  1. “Implicit” thinking that is effortless, habitual, and without awareness is called
    1. controlled processing.
    2. automatic processing.
    3. internal processing.
    4. intentional processing.

Answer:   Page: 107     Type:  DEF

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  1. Hoping that if you try to remember what the professor was wearing when he was talking about the fundamental attribution error it will help you recall the definition of the fundamental attribution error during the exam is an example of what type of thinking?
    1. controlled processing
    2. automatic processing
    3. internal processing
    4. intentional processing

Answer:  Page: 107     Type:  CON

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  1. You used to envy your brother because he always is so confident when talking to others. Yet the older you become, you realize that your brother is more often convinced of things than accurate about things. Your brother's behavior can be explained with the
    1. perseverance bias.
    2. fundamental attribution error.
    3. correspondence bias.
    4. overconfidence phenomenon.

Answer:    Page: 109     Type:  CON

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  1. Kruger and Dunning (1999) have found that those students who score at the bottom on tests of grammar and logic are _____ to overestimate their ability for grammar and logic.
    1. least prone
    2. most prone
    3. sometimes prone
    4. never prone

Answer:   Page: 110     Type:  FAC

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  1. Although you thought you learned last time, the same thing seems to happen each semester. That is, you repeatedly underestimate how long it will take to complete a research paper that is due at the end of the semester. Your behavior is an example of the
    1. perseverance bias.
    2. fundamental attribution error.
    3. correspondence bias.
    4. overconfidence phenomenon.

Answer:    Page: 110     Type:  CON

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  1. Which of the following is an effective remedy for the overconfidence bias?
    1. Get people to think about why their judgments might be wrong.
    2. Delay feedback regarding the accuracy of their judgments.
    3. Inform people about the overconfidence bias.
    4. None of the above—there is no remedy.

Answer:     Page: 110     Type:  FAC

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  1. When we are eager to seek information that verifies our beliefs but less inclined to seek evidence that might disprove our beliefs, the _______ occurs.
    1. hindsight bias
    2. confirmation bias
    3. overconfidence phenomenon
    4. fundamental attribution error

Answer: Page: 112     Type:  DEF

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  1. Sharon typically watches televised news stations that support her existing political beliefs. She is less inclined to watch the news on other stations, as it may disprove her preconceptions. Sharon's approach illustrates
    1. the confirmation bias.
    2. the misinformation effect.
    3. the base-rate fallacy.
    4. the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.

Answer:  Page: 112     Type:  CON

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  1. Which of the following is a thinking strategy that enables quick, efficient judgments?
    1. an implicit attitude
    2. an explicit attitude
    3. a heuristic
    4. the confirmation bias

Answer:  Page: 113     Type:  DEF

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  1. On the first day of class, we see a middle-aged man at the front of the room, talking to a younger man. If we assume the older man is the professor and the younger man is the student, we are relying on what heuristic?
    1. availability
    2. representativeness
    3. vividness
    4. matching

Answer:   Page: 113     Type:  CON

 

  1. Once during a hospital stay, you observed a man and a woman (both in health professional attire) talking. You assumed the man was a physician, and the woman was a nurse. Later, you found out the opposite was true. What type of heuristic had you been using during your initial reaction to the two individuals?
    1. availability
    2. representativeness
    3. vividness
    4. matching

Answer:    Page: 113     Type:  CON

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  1. The cognitive rule that judges the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory is called the _____ heuristic.
    1. availability
    2. representativeness
    3. vividness
    4. matching

Answer: Page: 114     Type:  DEF

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  1. Although travelers in the United States are more likely to die in a automobile crash than on a commercial flight covering the same distance, people often assume flying is more dangerous than driving. What type of heuristic are people using when they make this assumption?
    1. availability
    2. representativeness
    3. vividness
    4. matching

Answer:  Page: 115     Type:  FAC

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  1. Regretting that you did not study very well for your psychology exam, you imagine yourself earning a better grade than the one you actually earned. This is an example of
    1. implicit thinking.
    2. explicit thinking.
    3. counterfactual thinking.
    4. the fundamental attribution error.

Answer: Page: 116     Type:  CON

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  1. We perceive a(n) _____ when we expect to find significant relationships where none exist.
    1. representative heuristic
    2. availability heuristic
    3. illusory correlation
    4. overconfidence phenomenon

Answer:   Page: 117     Type:  FAC

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  1. Superstitious behavior, or thinking that our premonitions correlate with events, represents
    1. the representative heuristic.
    2. the availability heuristic.
    3. the illusory correlation.
    4. the overconfidence phenomenon.

Answer:   Page: 117     Type:  FAC

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  1. The idea that chance events are subject to our influence describes the
    1. illusory correlation.
    2. illusion of control.
    3. representative heuristic.
    4. availability heuristic.

Answer     Page: 117     Type:  DEF

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  1. Although you once earned a 100 on your physics exam, you have subsequently been unable to earn a perfect score again. Your experience may be understood in terms of
    1. the illusory correlation.
    2. the regression toward the average.
    3. the representativeness heuristic.
    4. counterfactual thinking.

Answer:   Page: 117     Type:  CON

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  1. In a now-famous study, Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) found that randomly selected elementary school students experienced a spurt in IQ score largely as a result of
    1. increased parental involvement and support.
    2. their teachers' elevated expectations.
    3. intensified academic training.
    4. educational strategies that raised their self-esteem.

Answer:     Page: 122     Type:  FAC

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 36. According to research done by Miller and his colleagues (1975), if you want young children to litter and put trash in wastebaskets, you should probably repeatedly

    1. tell them they should be neat and tidy.
    2. congratulate them for being neat and tidy.
    3. tell them littering is a crime.
    4. tell them that people who litter are trash.

Answer:     Page: 125     Type:  FAC


 
  1. Attitudes include all of the following EXCEPT
    1. affect.
    2. behavioral tendencies.
    3. cognition.
    4. all of the above.

Answer:   Page: 134     Type:  FAC

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  1. In 1969, social psychologist Allan Wicker completed a review of dozens of research studies with the conclusion that people's expressed attitudes _____ predicted their varying behaviors.
    1. hardly
    2. often
    3. strongly
    4. always

Answer:     Page: 135     Type:  FAC

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3.   Your text cites Nagourney's (2002) report that although many U.S. legislators had private reservations with President George W. Bush's planned war against Iraq in late 2002, they publicly voted in support of the war. This is an example of which explanation for why attitudes do not always predict behavior?

    1. when social influences on what we say are minimal
    2. when other influences on behavior are minimal
    3. when attitudes specific to the behavior are examined
    4. when attitudes are potent

Answer:    Page: 136     Type:  FAC

 

  1. People's attitude toward religion is a ____ predictor of whether they will go to worship next weekend.
    1. strong
    2. average
    3. poor
    4. inconsistent

Answer:     Page: 137     Type:  FAC

 

  1. Diner and Wallbom (1976) found that when research participants were instructed to stop working on a problem after a bell sounded, 71 percent continued working when left alone. On the other hand, 7 percent continued to work after the bell if they were made self-aware by working in front of a mirror. This illustrates which explanation for why attitudes do not always predict behavior?
    1. when social influences on what we say are minimal
    2. when other influences on behavior are minimal
    3. when attitudes specific to the behavior are examined
    4. when attitudes are potent

Answer:    Page: 139     Type:  FAC

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  1. You have a part-time job in the customer service department of a local department store. Although you don't think it is acceptable to be rude to customers, you sometimes are, especially when they are impatient and make demands of you. You find that you tend to treat customers better, though, on the days that your boss is in the store, or when you know you are being videotaped. Which of the following explanations for why attitudes do not always predict behavior best explains your own behavior?
    1. when social influences on what we say are minimal
    2. when other influences on behavior are minimal
    3. when attitudes specific to the behavior are examined
    4. when attitudes are potent

Answer:     Page: 139     Type:  CON

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  1. As an example of the foot-in-the-door phenomenon, Greenwald and colleagues (1987) found that when people were asked “Do you expect that you will vote or not?” the day before the 1984 presidential election, they were _____more likely to vote than if not asked this question the day before.
    1. 11 percent
    2. 41 percent
    3. 88 percent
    4. 100 percent

Answer:     Page: 144     Type:  FAC

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  1. Research in France has found that having people first sign a petition against landmines will increase the likelihood that Internet users will contribute to a fund for victims of landmines. This is an example of the _____ phenomenon.
    1. foot-in-the-door
    2. low-ball
    3. compliance
    4. conformity

Answer:    Page: 144     Type:  FAC

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  1. A variation of the foot-in-the-door technique that is often used by car dealers, because it typically results in people complying with higher and higher requests, is called the _____ technique.
    1. foot-in-the-door
    2. low-ball
    3. compliance
    4. conformity

Answer:  Page: 145     Type:  DEF

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  1. You have been interested in purchasing a digital camera. After doing a great deal of research on the models and features that are available, you find a camera with an extremely low price. As you are about to purchase the camera, you find that it does not come with a power cord, memory card, or battery – all which must be purchased separately. You go ahead and purchase all these items, and the total cost surpasses what you would have paid at another store that listed the camera at a higher price, but included all the accessories. You have been a victim of the _____ technique.
    1. foot-in-the-door
    2. low-ball
    3. compliance
    4. conformity

Answer:     Page: 145     Type:  CON

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  1. Research has found that when consumers are aware of a seller's profit motive, the low-ball technique _____ effective.
    1. fails to be
    2. continues to be
    3. is sometimes
    4. none of the above

Answer:   Page: 146     Type:  FAC

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  1. If you are asked to participate in a research study without knowing the time, you are ____ to participate than if you were aware the study began at 7 a.m.
    1. less likely
    2. more likely
    3. just as likely
    4. none of the above

Answer:   Page: 145     Type:  FAC

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  1. Freedman (1965) found that those children who received _____ for playing with a toy when he was out of the room were more likely to resist playing with it several weeks later with a different researcher.
    1. severe threat
    2. mild deterrent
    3. negative reinforcement
    4. positive reinforcement

Answer:     Page: 147     Type:  FAC

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  1. Sarah has always strongly believed that it is wrong to steal. But after she steals a bottle of nail polish from the drugstore, her attitude toward stealing becomes significantly less harsh. What best accounts for her shift in attitude?
    1. cognitive dissonance theory
    2. self-perception theory
    3. reinforcement theory
    4. role-playing theory

Answer:   Page: 152     Type:  CON

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  1. The insufficient justification effect involves reducing dissonance by _____ justifying one's behavior when ____ justification is insufficient.
    1. externally; internal
    2. internally; external
    3. cognitively; emotional
    4. emotionally; cognitive

Answer:   Page: 152     Type:  DEF

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  1. Festinger and Carlsmith had experimental participants perform a dull task but paid them to lie by telling a prospective participant that the task had been enjoyable. Results showed that the participants who were paid _____ came to believe the task had been _____.
    1. $1; tedious and boring
    2. $1; interesting and enjoyable
    3. $20; interesting and enjoyable
    4. $1; frightening

Answer:   Page: 153     Type:  FAC

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  1. Though she is opposed to capital punishment, Lisa is asked to give a speech in favor of it to round out a class debate. Dissonance theory predicts that her true attitude will undergo the most change if she
    1. makes a speech implying capital punishment is really wrong.
    2. agrees to give the speech but only if she tells both sides.
    3. agrees to give the speech without special incentives.
    4. agrees to give the speech for a large reward.

Answer Page: 154     Type:  CON

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  1. According to dissonance theory, managers, teachers, and parents should use _____ to elicit the desired behavior.
    1. reminders of their legitimate authority
    2. only social punishments and rewards
    3. promises rather than threats
    4. the smallest possible incentive

Answer:   Page: 154     Type:  FAC

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  1. You have recently earned a promotion at work and are now a manager. You decide to use your knowledge of social psychology to improve the working conditions of your new subordinates. Given you know that dissonance theory predicts attitudes will follow behaviors for which we feel some responsibility, you should use ____ to elicit the desired behaviors in your subordinates.
    1. reminders of their legitimate authority
    2. only social punishments and rewards
    3. promises rather than threats
    4. the smallest possible incentive

Answer:  Page: 154     Type:  FAC

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  1. After making important decisions, we usually reduce dissonance by _____ the chosen alternative and _____ the unchosen option.
    1. focusing on; ignoring
    2. ignoring; focusing on
    3. downgrading; upgrading
    4. upgrading; downgrading

Answer:    Page: 155     Type:  FAC

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  1. When we are unsure of our attitudes, we infer them much as would someone else who is observing us – that is, we look at our behavior. Which theory does this describe?
    1. self-presentation theory
    2. self-consistency theory
    3. cognitive dissonance theory
    4. self-perception theory

Answer:     Page: 156     Type:  CON

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  1. “Emotional contagion” can explain why you always feel ____ after being with a consistently upbeat friend.
    1. smart
    2. depressed
    3. happy
    4. confident

Answer:   Page: 158     Type:  CON

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  1. The finding that the smallest incentive that will get people to do something is usually the most effective in getting them to like the activity and keep doing it is best explained by the _____ .
    1. self-presentation theory
    2. emotional contagion theory
    3. overjustification effect
    4. insufficient justification effect

Answer:    Page: 159     Type:  DEF

 

  1. According to the overjustification effect, promising children a reward for doing what they intrinsically enjoy will
    1. lead to more enjoyment in the activity.
    2. lead to less enjoyment in the activity.
    3. increase the time and effort they put into the activity.
    4. encourage them to do the activity on their own, without the promise of future rewards.

Answer:    Page: 160     Type:  FAC

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  1. Myra's neighbor, a little boy, practices his saxophone loudly and annoyingly. According to the overjustification effect, if Myra wants to get him to quit playing, she should
    1. threaten to make him miserable if he keeps playing.
    2. pay him to quit playing.
    3. pay him a small amount to quit playing and then offer him more and more.
    4. pay him to play and then offer him less and less.

Answer:    Page: 160     Type:  CON

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  1. As a teenager, you enjoyed jogging. Concerned with controlling your weight, your parents gave you money whenever you went jogging. According to self-perception theory, your parents' behavior likely did what to your intrinsic motivation for jogging?
    1. decreased it
    2. increased it
    3. removed it
    4. instilled it

Answer:   Page: 160     Type:  CON

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  1. Which theory assumes that when our attitudes regarding something are weak to begin with we will use our behavior and its circumstances as a clue to those attitudes?
    1. self-perception
    2. cognitive dissonance
    3. self-presentation
    4. self-affirmation

Answer:   Page: 162     Type:  DEF

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  1. Self-affirmation theory would predict that when Marcus is ridiculed on the campus basketball court for his lack of skill at the sport, he is most likely to
    1. continue trying to succeed on the court.
    2. begin talking about the “A” he received on an exam that day.
    3. stop playing basketball.
    4. talk about how he is also not very good at baseball.

Answer:  Page: 162     Type:  CON

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  1. According to Steele's self-affirmation theory, the need to justify dissonant acts is
    1. decreased if one's self-worth has been recently affirmed.
    2. increased if one's self-worth has been recently affirmed.
    3. unaffected if one's self-worth has been recently affirmed.
    4. decreased if one's self-worth has been recently threatened.

Answer:    Page: 162     Type:  FAC

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  1. A comparison of theories explaining attitude-behavior relationships concludes that dissonance conditions do indeed arouse tension, especially when those conditions threaten
    1. self-worth.
    2. physical discomfort.
    3. as-yet-unformed attitudes.
    4. none of the above.

Answer:   Page: 162     Type:  FAC

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  1. Harry has always strongly believed that it is wrong to shoplift. But after he himself shoplifts some inexpensive jewelry, his attitude toward shoplifting becomes less harsh. Which theory best accounts for this attitude shift?
    1. role-playing theory
    2. self-monitoring theory
    3. self-perception theory
    4. cognitive dissonance theory

Answer:    Page: 162     Type:  CON



  1. ____ is the process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors.
    1. Compliance
    2. Persuasion
    3. Inoculation
    4. The sleeper effect

Answer:    Page: 245     Type:  DEF

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  1. The power of persuasion can help explain why Americans' support for the war with Iraq was 3-to-1 after the war began, when it was _____ the war before it began.
    1. 2-to-1 against
    2. 2-to-1 for
    3. 3-to-1 against
    4. none of the above

Answer:    Page: 246     Type:  FAC

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  1. As an example of how persuasion can be used to promote healthier living, the CDC has reported that smoking in the United States has ______ over the last 40 years.
    1. decreased by 23 percent
    2. decreased to 23 percent
    3. increased by 23 percent
    4. increased to 23 percent

Answer:    Page: 247     Type:  FAC

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  1. According to the text, the factor that determines whether we call attempts at persuasion “education” or “propaganda” is whether
    1. we believe them or not.
    2. we know the communicator or not.
    3. the message is rational or emotional in tone.
    4. the message is one-sided or two-sided.

Answer:     Page: 247     Type:  FAC

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  1. According to Myers, advertisers for computers tend to adopt marketing strategies that are best suited for the ____route to persuasion.
    1. peripheral
    2. central
    3. logical
    4. image

Answer:    Page: 249     Type:  FAC

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  1. Lately you've noticed your favorite athlete on your cereal box, highway billboards for sports beverages, and television commercials for running shoes. What type of marketing strategy is being used to persuade you to purchase these products?
    1. intelligent
    2. savvy
    3. central route
    4. peripheral route

Answer:     Page: 249     Type:  CON

 

  1. A communicator is said to have this characteristic when he or she is perceived as both expert and trustworthy.
    1. honest
    2. guileless
    3. honorable
    4. credible

Answer:  Page: 252     Type:  DEF

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  1. You are about to attend a lecture on campus about the advantages of a liberal arts education. You anticipate what the speaker will say without a doubt. Once you attend the lecture, though, you find the speaker advocating a liberal arts major in conjunction with a minor in an applied field. You had not expected to hear the speaker take this position and, as a result, attribute the message to ______ and find it _____.
    1. compelling evidence; persuasive
    2. unconvincing evidence; persuasive
    3. compelling evidence; not persuasive
    4. unconvincing evidence; not persuasive

Answer:  Page: 253     Type:  CON

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  1. Research has found that ____ speakers are rated as more objective, intelligent, and knowledgeable.
    1. dull
    2. exciting
    3. fast
    4. slow

Answer:    Page: 253     Type:  FAC

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  1. Which one of the following is NOT one of the characteristics that listeners typically attribute to fast speakers?
    1. objectivity
    2. humor
    3. intelligence
    4. knowledgeable

Answer:     Page: 253     Type:  FAC

 

  1. When people tend to honor their public commitments, Cialdini (2000) would call this the _____ principle of persuasion.
    1. liking
    2. authority
    3. social proof
    4. consistency

Answer:    Page: 254     Type:  FAC

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  1. An-mei has many friends and easily influences people. She readily creates bonds with others based on similar interests, and freely praises everyone around her. An-mei practices which of Cialdini's (2000) persuasion principles?
    1. liking
    2. authority
    3. social proof
    4. consistency

Answer     Page: 254     Type:  CON

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  1. We tend to like people who are like us. This exemplifies which characteristic of attractiveness?
    1. liking
    2. similarity
    3. consistency
    4. physical appeal

Answer:    Page: 254     Type:  FAC

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  1. Arguments, especially emotional ones, are often more influential when they come from beautiful people. This exemplifies which characteristic of attractiveness?
    1. liking
    2. similarity
    3. consistency
    4. physical appeal

Answer:    Page: 254     Type:  FAC

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  1. Who is more persuasive?
    1. a physically attractive and objective source
    2. a physically attractive and biased source
    3. a dissimilar but expert source
    4. a similar but inexpert source

Answer: Page: 254     Type:  FAC

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  1. Brock (1965) found that paint store customers were more influenced by the testimony of
    1. an ordinary person who recently bought the same amount of paint as they did.
    2. an expert who recently bought 20 times as much as they did.
    3. an ordinary person who recently bought 20 times as much as they did.
    4. an expert who recently bought the same amount of paint as they did.

Answer:     Page: 254     Type:  FAC

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  1. Who is more responsive to rational appeals?
    1. well-educated and analytic people
    2. well-educated and nonanalytic people
    3. less educated and analytic people
    4. less educated and nonanalytic people

Answer:   Page: 256     Type:  FAC

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  1. Abelson and others (1982) have found that voting preferences in the United States can be reasonably predicted from voters'_____.
    1. political party
    2. geographical residence
    3. beliefs about the candidates' traits and likely behaviors.
    4. emotional reactions to the candidates.

Answer:     Page: 256     Type:  FAC

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  1. Fear-arousing messages have proven potent in convincing people to
    1. cut down on smoking.
    2. brush their teeth more often.
    3. drive carefully.
    4. all of the above.

Answer:    Page: 257     Type:  FAC

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  1. What is the effect of a fear-arousing communication?
    1. Fear renders a communication ineffective.
    2. Generally the more frightened people are, the more they respond.
    3. Evoking a low level of fear is effective, but producing a high level of fear is not.
    4. Fear appeals are effective with women but boomerang with men.

Answer:    Page: 257     Type:  FAC

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  1. When the fear aroused by a persuasive message is relevant to a pleasurable activity (e.g., sex or smoking), the result according to Aronson (1997) is often
    1. intensified fear.
    2. reduced fear.
    3. immediate behavioral change.
    4. denial.

Answer:     Page: 258     Type:  FAC

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  1. When people are given frightening messages, they may engage in denial if they aren't told how to avoid the danger, as the messages can then _____.
    1. lack credibility
    2. be ignored
    3. be overwhelming
    4. seem ridiculous

Answer:    Page: 258     Type:  FAC

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  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the characteristics of effective fear-arousing messages?
    1. They lead people to fear the severity of a threatened event.
    2. They lead people to fear the likelihood of a threatened event.
    3. They lead people to fear the overwhelming nature of a threatened event.
    4. They lead people to perceive a solution to the threatening event.

Answer:    Page: 258     Type:  FAC

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  1. In your marketing class, your assignment is to create an advertisement that will encourage people to buy condom X over condom Y. Given your knowledge of persuasion, which strategy would be most effective?
    1. an ad that reads “AIDS kills,” along with a suggestion that condom X prevents it
    2. an ad that reads “AIDS kills,” along with a suggestion that condom Y doesn't prevent it
    3. an ad that suggests condom X prevents AIDS
    4. an ad that suggests condom Y does not prevent AIDS

Answer:   Page: 258     Type:  CON

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  1. In your marketing class, your assignment is to create an advertisement that will encourage people to buy brand X nicotine patch over brand Y nicotine patch. Given your knowledge of persuasion, which strategy would be most effective?
    1. an ad that reads “Lung cancer kills,” along with a suggestion that patch X is an effective strategy for quitting smoking
    2. an ad that reads “Lung cancer kills,” along with a suggestion that patch Y is not an effective strategy for quitting smoking
    3. an ad that suggests patch X is an effective strategy for quitting smoking
    4. an ad that suggests patch Y is not an effective strategy for quitting smoking

Answer:     Page: 258     Type:  CON

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  1. According to Aronson, Turner, and Carlsmith (1963), the effect of a large versus a small discrepancy between the communicator and the receiver of a message depends on
    1. whether the receiver of the message is emotionally invested in the topic.
    2. whether the receiver of the message is interested in the topic.
    3. whether the communicator of the message is credible.
    4. whether the communicator of the message is articulate.

Answer:    Page: 259     Type:  FAC

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  1. Given Charmaine is not a particularly prestigious and authoritative source on exercise, her encouraging her father to exercise should push for a
    1. complete overhaul of his lifestyle.
    2. complete fitness program.
    3. modest suggestion that he begin doing some limited exercises.
    4. consultation with a local gym

Answer:  Page: 260     Type:  CON

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  1. Werner and colleagues (2002) conducted a study on aluminum can recycling at the University of Utah and found the most effective message was a _______.
    1. one-sided one
    2. two-sided one
    3. discrepant one
    4. clear and unambiguous one

Answer:    Page: 260     Type:  FAC

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  1. When Werner and colleagues (2002) placed signs on a campus with a two-sided message that not only stated the importance of recycling but also acknowledged the inconvenience of it, recycling increased to _____ percent.
    1. 100
    2. 80
    3. 60
    4. 40

Answer:     Page: 260     Type:  FAC

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  1. Studies have shown that if people are or will be aware of opposing arguments, a ______ presentation is more persuasive and enduring.
    1. one-sided
    2. two-sided
    3. discrepant
    4. clear and unambiguous

Answer:    Page: 261     Type:  FAC

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  1. The _____ effect refers to how information presented first usually has the most influence.
    1. recency
    2. primacy
    3. channel
    4. b and c

Answer:     Page: 262     Type:  DEF

 

 



 

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