PRACTICE ITEMS FOR TEST 1

1. THESE ITEMS ARE PRIMARILY FROM THE BOOK.
PRACTICE ITEMS FROM LECTURE HAVE BEEN REGULARLY
BEEN PRESENTED IN LECTURE.

2. THESE ITEMS HAVE NOT BEEN REVIEWED QUITE
AS CAREFULLY AS THOSE ON THE ACTUAL TEST,
SO IT IS SOMEWHAT MORE LIKELY FOR ERRORS
AND TYPOS TO HAVE CREPT IN HERE.  THEY HAVE ALSO
NOT BEEN AS CAREFULLY SCREENED FOR AMBIGUITIES
OR JUST PLAIN POOR QUESTIONS.

STILL, THEY ARE GOOD PREP FOR THE TEST.

3. Jarret and I will be glad to discuss any of these items with you.
However, to do so, please bring your textbook, and be prepared to
discuss the page on which the test item indicates that the
answer appears.

4. The Page info at the end of each question shows where, in the book,
you can find the answer.

Chapter 6  <>

 

  1. A change in behavior or belief to accord with others is called
    1. obedience.
    2. acceptance.
    3. conformity.
    4. compliance.

Page: 209     Type:  DEF

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  1. Even though you really dislike wearing a dress, you decide to wear one to your cousin's wedding. This is an example of
    1. obedience.
    2. acceptance.
    3. conformity.
    4. compliance.

Page: 209     Type:  CON

 

  1. After hearing a great deal about the benefits of soy products from our friends, we decide to drink soy milk instead of cow's milk. Our behavior is an example of
    1. obedience.
    2. acceptance.
    3. conformity.
    4. compliance.

     Page: 209     Type:  CON

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  1. Conformity that involves both acting and believing in accord with social pressure is called
    1. obedience.
    2. acceptance.
    3. conformity.
    4. compliance.

    Page: 209     Type:  DEF

 

  1. After hearing so much about the dangers of smoking cigarettes from the media and from seeing so many others quit, we finally realize that smoking really is dangerous to our health and therefore quit. Our behavior is an example of
    1. obedience.
    2. acceptance.
    3. conformity.
    4. compliance.

    Page: 209     Type:  CON

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  1. As a freshman, Tim became a vegetarian in order to fit in with his new friends. Now, as a senior, Tim would never consider eating meat again. What process does Tim's experience illustrate?
    1. compliance
    2. acceptance
    3. reactance
    4. social facilitation

Page: 209     Type:  CON

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  1. In his classic study of _____, Sherif had participants in groups call out estimates of the distance a small point of light appeared to move in a dark room.
    1. obedience
    2. group cohesiveness
    3. norm formation
    4. psychological reactance

    Page: 210     Type:  FAC

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  1. Studies involving __________________ most clearly demonstrate social influence taking the form of acceptance.
    1. judgments of the length of lines
    2. judgments of the autokinetic phenomenon
    3. shocking innocent victims
    4. none of the above

  Page: 210     Type:  FAC

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  1. The autokinetic phenomenon refers to
    1. a false group consensus.
    2. an illusion of perceived movement of a stationary point of light.
    3. a form of self-efficacy.
    4. an influential bias in social judgment.

   Page: 210     Type:  DEF

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  1. A year after his original study, Sherif's participants were retested alone and gave answers that supported the original group's norm. This suggests that the process involved was really
    1. reactance.
    2. compliance.
    3. obedience.
    4. acceptance.

    Page: 210     Type:  FAC

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  1. In spring of 1954, Seattle residents were alarmed by widespread reports of damage by a mysterious windshield-pitting agent. According to your text, the true cause of public concern was most likely
    1. fallout from recent Pacific testing of the H-bomb.
    2. mass suggestibility.
    3. psychological reactance.
    4. the autokinetic phenomenon.

    Page: 211     Type:  FAC

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  1. Asch's studies of conformity differ in important ways from those of Sherif because
    1. Asch's participants faced a more ambiguous task.
    2. Sherif's participants were dealing with facts rather than opinions.
    3. Asch's participants could clearly see the correct judgment.
    4. Sherif's participants were in the physical presence of the pressuring group while Asch's participants were not.

     Page: 212     Type:  FAC

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  1. While control participants were correct about line-length judgments more than 99 percent of the time in Asch's conformity study, his naive participants conformed to the incorrect judgments of others _____ of the time.
    1. 12 percent
    2. 37 percent
    3. 65 percent
    4. 87 percent

     Page: 214     Type:  FAC

 

  1. When Milgram asked 100 psychiatrists, college students, and middle-class adults to predict the results of his experiment, the respondents said that they thought _____ would _____.
    1. they themselves; never begin to administer shock
    2. they themselves; disobey by about 135 volts
    3. other people; disobey by about 210 volts
    4. other people; go all the way to 450 volts

     Page: 217     Type:  FAC

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  1. When Milgram conducted his first series of experiments with a sample of 20- to 50-year-old men, he found that over 60 percent of them
    1. refused to deliver shocks beyond 150 volts.
    2. refused to deliver shocks past the 300-volt level.
    3. went clear to 450 volts.
    4. asked to be released from the experiment by 135 volts.

     Page: 217     Type:  FAC

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  1. In light of the Milgram studies, which of the following is NOT one of the factors that determined obedience?
    1. the victim's emotional distance
    2. the victim's physical distance
    3. the authority's closeness and legitimacy
    4. whether or not the authority was institutionalized

     Page: 218-219     Type:  FAC

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  1. In a variation of the Milgram study, the learner was in the same room as the teacher. Under these conditions, ____ percent obeyed to 450 volts.
    1. 100
    2. 80
    3. 40
    4. 20

     Page: 219     Type:  FAC

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  1. Consistent with what is known about depersonalization, Lydon and Dunkel-Schetter (1994) found that expectant women expressed more _____ to their pregnancies after seeing an ultrasound photo of the fetus.
    1. apathy
    2. resentment
    3. commitment
    4. hostility

     Page: 219     Type:  FAC

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  1. In Milgram's research, when the experimenter gave the commands by telephone instead of in person, full obedience
    1. dropped to zero.
    2. dropped to 21 percent.
    3. dropped to 50 percent.
    4. increased to 73 percent.

     Page: 220     Type:  FAC

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  1. In a study by Hofling and colleagues (1966), 22 hospital nurses were telephoned by an unknown physician and ordered to administer an obvious drug overdose. Results showed that
    1. most would not act on the order unless the caller named a familiar physician as reference.
    2. most nurses refused to comply unless given the order in writing.
    3. less experienced nurses complied but more experienced ones challenged the order.
    4. all but one proceeded to comply without delay.

     Page: 220     Type:  FAC

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  1. Interpreting events differently after hearing from others is what social psychologists call
    1. norm formation.
    2. conformity.
    3. obedience.
    4. none of the above.

     Page: 220     Type:  FAC

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  1. Doing as others do is what social psychologists call
    1. norm formation.
    2. conformity.
    3. obedience.
    4. none of the above.

     Page: 220     Type:  FAC

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  1. _____ occurs when soldiers or employees follow questionable orders, such as when nurses willingly follow a physician's order to give a patient a dangerously high dosage of medication.
    1. Norm formation
    2. Conformity
    3. Obedience
    4. Acceptance

     Page: 221     Type:  FAC

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  1. According to conformity research, a group's social power is deflated when it loses its
    1. agenda.
    2. anonymity.
    3. unanimity.
    4. heterogeneity.

     Page: 228     Type:  FAC

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  1. The extent to which members of a group are bound together, such as by attraction for one another, is called _____.
    1. conformity
    2. cohesion
    3. compliance
    4. unanimity

     Page: 230     Type:  DEF

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  1. The relationship between the degree to which a group is cohesive and the degree to which the group has power over its members is a _______ one.
    1. positive
    2. negative
    3. neutral
    4. curvilinear

     Page: 230     Type:  CON

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  1. Group members who feel attracted to the group are more responsive to its influence. This fact illustrates the impact of __________ on conformity.
    1. unanimity
    2. status
    3. cohesiveness
    4. co-morbidity

     Page: 231     Type:  FAC

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  1. Bearman and Brueckner (2001) have found that teens who make a public virginity-until-marriage pledge become somewhat more likely to remain sexually abstinent than similar teens who don't make the pledge. This is an example of how
    1. status produces psychological reactance.
    2. a we-they feeling has evolved between professional sports players and officials.
    3. the teen seeks to maintain emotional distance from would-be sexual partners.
    4. public commitment reduces susceptibility to social influence.

     Page: 234     Type:  CON

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  1. Conformity based on a person's desire to fulfill others' expectations, often to gain their acceptance, is called _____.
    1. compliance
    2. acceptance
    3. normative influence
    4. informational influence

     Page: 234     Type:  DEF

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  1. Conformity that occurs when people accept evidence about reality that is provided by other people is called _____.
    1. compliance
    2. acceptance
    3. normative influence
    4. informational influence

     Page: 234     Type:  DEF

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  1. In a foreign country, you find that waving is an effective means to hail a taxi. As a result, you observe other people's behavior to discover that sitting down on a sidewalk bench is the only effective means. As a result, you have conformed to the local behavior due to
    1. compliance.
    2. acceptance.
    3. normative influence.
    4. informational influence.

     Page: 234     Type:  CON

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  1. Conformity is greater when responding before a group. This pattern reflects
    1. compliance.
    2. acceptance.
    3. normative influence.
    4. informational influence.

     Page: 357 and 235     Type:  FAC

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  1. Conformity is greater when people feel incompetent. This pattern reflects
    1. compliance.
    2. acceptance.
    3. normative influence.
    4. informational influence.

     Page: 235     Type:  FAC

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  1. Which of the following statements is true of conformity and obedience?
    1. They are primarily collectivistic phenomena.
    2. They are primarily individualistic phenomena.
    3. They are universal phenomena that vary by culture.
    4. They are universal phenomena that are uninfluenced by culture.

     Page: 237     Type:  FAC

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  1. Compared to people in individualistic countries, those in collectivistic countries are
    1. more likely to express psychological reactance.
    2. more responsive to others' influence.
    3. more susceptible to the fundamental attribution error.
    4. none of the above.

     Page: 237     Type:  FAC

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  1. Compared to Euro-American cultures, Asian cultures are more likely to teach their children
    1. independence.
    2. collectivism.
    3. to follow their own conscience.
    4. to respect another's privacy.

     Page: 237     Type:  FAC

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  1. Knowing that someone is trying to coerce you may prompt you to do the opposite of that person's wishes. This response is predicted by
    1. reactance theory.
    2. the theory of normative social influence.
    3. Milgram's theory of obedience.
    4. social norms theory.

     Page: 238     Type:  FAC

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  1. Heilman (1976) found that when potential petition signers were told that others believe that “people absolutely should not be allowed to distribute or sign such petitions,” the rate of signing
    1. increased.
    2. decreased.
    3. stayed the same.
    4. fluctuated wildly.

     Page: 239     Type:  FAC

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  1. Heilman (1976) found that when potential petition signers were told that others believe that “people absolutely should not be allowed to distribute or sign such petitions,” the rate of signing increased. This study demonstrates
    1. reactance theory.
    2. the theory of normative social influence.
    3. Milgram's theory of obedience.
    4. social norms theory.

     Page: 239     Type:  FAC

 

  1. When William McGuire and his Yale University colleagues invited children to “tell us about yourself,” they found that the children were most likely to mention their
    1. gender.
    2. nationality.
    3. distinctive attributes.
    4. most common personal characteristics.

     Page: 240     Type:  FAC

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  1. Verute has blonde hair, a sister and a brother, and parents who are both teachers. Verute was born in Lithuania, and her family moved to New York when she was six. She attends a state university in the midwestern United States and majors in journalism. If you asked Verute to “tell us about yourself,” she is most likely to mention that
    1. she has blonde hair.
    2. she has a brother and a sister.
    3. she was born in Lithuania.
    4. her parents both attended college.

     Page: 240     Type:  CON



Chapter 9

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  1. ____ is a negative attitude; ____ is a negative behavior.
    1. Stereotype; racism
    2. Racism; stereotype
    3. Discrimination; prejudice
    4. Prejudice; discrimination

Page: 334     Type:  DEF

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  1. Institutional practices that subordinate people of a given race are called _____.
    1. racism
    2. prejudice
    3. discrimination
    4. all of the above

Page: 334     Type:  DEF

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  1. Institutional practices that subordinate people of a given sex are called _____.
    1. sexism
    2. prejudice
    3. discrimination
    4. all of the above

Page: 334     Type:  DEF

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  1. A state police force has set a height requirement of 5 feet 10 inches for all officers. This requirement is irrelevant to job effectiveness but generally excludes Hispanics, Asians, and women from the force. Such a requirement most clearly reflects
    1. racism and sexism.
    2. scapegoating and ingroup bias.
    3. stereotyping and prejudice.
    4. Gause's law and realistic conflict theory.

Page: 334     Type:  CON

 

  1. Most Americans agree that
    1. the activities of married women are best confined to the home and family.
    2. they would probably move if Black people came to live in great numbers in their neighborhood.
    3. the two sexes are equally emotional.
    4. they would vote for a qualified woman whom their party nominated for president.

Page: 341     Type:  FAC

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  1. Eagly's (1994) “women-are-wonderful” effect is an example of _____.
    1. a form of prejudice
    2. a favorable stereotype
    3. hostile sexism
    4. all of the above

Page: 341     Type:  FAC

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  1. Which of the following is an example of benevolent sexism?
    1. “Women have a superior moral sensibility.”
    2. “Once a man commits, she puts him on a tight leash.”
    3. “Women are less skilled in mathematics than men.”
    4. All of the above.

Page: 341     Type:  CON

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  1. Sex-selective abortions and infanticide in China and India have led to _______ “missing women.”
    1. seven million
    2. seventy-six thousand
    3. seventy-six million
    4. twenty million

Page: 343     Type:  FAC

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  1. ____ help rationalize ____.
    1. Gender stereotypes; gender roles
    2. Gender roles; gender stereotypes
    3. Gender roles; benevolent sexism
    4. Gender roles; hostile sexism

Page: 344     Type:  FAC <>

 

  1. A consistent finding concerning Christianity in North America is that, in comparison to nonmembers, church members show _____ than nonmembers.
    1. more racial prejudice
    2. less racial prejudice
    3. more sexism but less racism
    4. more conformity but less authoritarianism

Page: 346     Type:  FAC

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  1. Which of the following is true?
    1. Faithful church attenders are more prejudiced than occasional attenders.
    2. Those who score highest on Gallup's “spiritual commitment” index are less accepting of a person of another race moving in next door.
    3. Those for whom religion is an end in itself express less prejudice than those for whom religion is more a means to an end.
    4. All of the above.

Page: 346     Type:  FAC

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  1. A consistent finding is that however religious commitment is assessed,
    1. the less devout are less prejudiced.
    2. commitment bears no relation to prejudice.
    3. the very devout are less prejudiced.
    4. the very devout are the most prejudiced.

Page: 346     Type:  FAC  <>

 

  1. When the cause of our frustration is intimidating or unknown, we often redirect our hostility. This phenomenon is known as
    1. prejudice.
    2. displaced aggression.
    3. realistic group conflict.
    4. institutional supports.

Page: 349     Type:  DEF

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  1. More lynching of Blacks took place in the old South during years when cotton prices were low, suggesting that prejudice is partly explained by
    1. ingroup bias.
    2. the just-world hypothesis.
    3. displaced aggression.
    4. institutional supports.

Page: 350     Type:  FAC

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  1. John has just failed a chemistry test. He goes back to his apartment and criticizes his roommate's choice of music. What term best describes John's behavior?
    1. institutionalized aggression
    2. just-world action
    3. displaced aggression
    4. authoritarian regression

Page: 350     Type:  CON

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  1. In a famous experiment by Miller and Bugelski (1948) , college-age men staying at a summer camp were asked to state their attitudes toward Japanese and Mexicans. Some did so before, and then after, being forced to stay in camp to take tests rather than going to a long-awaited free evening at a theater. Results most clearly supported
    1. realistic group conflict theory.
    2. the scapegoat theory of prejudice.
    3. the principle that unequal status breeds prejudice.
    4. the just-world hypothesis.

Page: 350     Type:  FAC

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  1. Realistic group conflict theory suggests that prejudice arises
    1. whenever people try to live together.
    2. when a new group moves into an area.
    3. between groups who fail to communicate clearly with each other.
    4. when groups compete for scarce resources.

Page: 350     Type:  DEF

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  1. Palmer (1996) has found that since 1975, there is a ____ relationship between opposition to immigration and the unemployment rate.
    1. positive
    2. negative
    3. neutral
    4. none of the above

Page: 350     Type:  FAC

 

  1. Between classes, you notice how the smokers congregate outside the doors, and when interacting with one another, they seem to behave as if they identify as quite different from those who happen to be outside the door but do not smoke. What term would best describe the group of smokers?
    1. an ingroup
    2. an outgroup
    3. a clan
    4. an ethnocentric group

Page: 351     Type:  CON

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  1. According to Myers, many superpatriots define themselves by their national identity, which is their way of
    1. justifying their racial discrimination.
    2. justifying their religious discrimination.
    3. establishing social dominance.
    4. seeking self-esteem.

Page: 351     Type:  FAC

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  1. A tendency to favor one's group is called _____.
    1. ethnocentrism
    2. an ingroup bias
    3. a prejudice
    4. none of the above

Page: 351     Type:  DEF

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  1. The favoring of one's own group that takes place with an ingroup bias reflects
    1. a liking for the ingroup.
    2. a dislike for the outgroup.
    3. a and b.
    4. none of the above.

Page: 353     Type:  FAC

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  1. Betty and Tina, both third-graders in the same classroom, are assigned by their teacher to different groups that will compete in a spelling bee. Betty and Tina each believe that their own group is composed of the better spellers. The girls' beliefs best illustrate
    1. the just-world phenomenon.
    2. ingroup bias.
    3. the fundamental attribution error.
    4. authoritarianism.

Page: 353     Type:  CON

 

  1. Monteith (1993) has found that those with _____ attitudes toward homosexuals may feel uncomfortable sitting with a gay male on a bus seat.
    1. accepting
    2. disapproving
    3. rejecting
    4. a and b

Page: 356     Type:  FAC

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  1. Which of the following statements is true?
    1. Categorization can provide useful information about people with minimum effort.
    2. It is difficult to resist categorizing people into groups.
    3. Categorization provides a cognitive foundation for prejudice.
    4. All of the above.

Page: 357     Type:  FAC

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  1. The phrase “they are all alike, but we are diverse” reflects
    1. outgroup bias.
    2. the outgroup homogeneity effect.
    3. ethnocentrism.
    4. categorization bias.

Page: 359     Type:  DEF

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  1. Taylor and Fiske (1978) have found that a Black in an otherwise White group, a man in an otherwise female group, or a woman in an otherwise male group seems
    1. less prominent than the others in the group.
    2. less influential.
    3. to be the cause of whatever happens.
    4. none of the above.

Page: 360     Type:  FAC

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  1. Your co-worker tells you that she has both a pet snake and a pet dog at home. You are likely to describe her to new office employees as a
    1. snake owner.
    2. dog owner.
    3. a and b.
    4. none of the above.

Page: 361     Type:  CON

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  1. Your new roommate introduces himself as having an Irish and Tahitian background. You are most likely to introduce your roommate to your friends as
    1. Irish.
    2. Tahitian.
    3. both Irish and Tahitian.
    4. none of the above.

Page: 361     Type:  CON

 

  1. Hamilton and Rose's (1980) research in which students read sentences describing accountants, doctors, and salespeople reveals that
    1. preexisting stereotypes lead us to “see” correlations that do not exist.
    2. vivid information is irrelevant to occupational stereotypes.
    3. positive information is better remembered if it describes doctors.
    4. distinctive information is ignored in forming impressions.

Page: 365     Type:  FAC

 

  1. Explaining away outgroup members' positive behaviors and attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions is known as
    1. the scapegoat theory of prejudice.
    2. the just-world bias.
    3. outgroup discrimination.
    4. group-serving bias.

Page: 365     Type:  DEF

 

  1. Which of the following would be an example of the group-serving bias?
    1. Cheryl believes that women are unemployed because of discrimination while men are unemployed because of low motivation.
    2. Sue believes that members of her own family are prejudiced while her husband's family is tolerant.
    3. Chuck believes that mistakes made by both men and women are due to low intelligence.
    4. Bill believes that groups outperform individuals in solving problems.

Page: 365     Type:  CON

 

  1. Linking good fortune with virtue and misfortune with moral failure enables fortunate people to feel pride and to avoid responsibility for the unfortunate. This is an example of the _____ phenomenon.
    1. retribution
    2. just-world
    3. ingroup bias
    4. stereotype invulnerability

Page: 367     Type:  CON

 

  1. ____ occurs when groups of individuals who don't fit their stereotype are thought of as a special category.
    1. Subtyping
    2. Subgrouping
    3. Prejudice
    4. Discrimination

Page: 370     Type:  DEF

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  1. ____ occurs when a new stereotype is formed about groups of individuals who don't fit their stereotype.
    1. Subtyping
    2. Subgrouping
    3. Prejudice
    4. Discrimination

Page: 370     Type:  DEF

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  1. ____ are exceptions to the group; _____ are acknowledged as part of the overall group.
    1. Subgroups; subtypes
    2. Subtypes; subgroups
    3. Ingroups; outgroups
    4. Outgroups; ingroups

Page: 370     Type:  FAC

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  1. Sally's parents have commented that the nice new family on the block, who is Black, represents “professional, middle-class Blacks.” Sally's parents are engaged in
    1. subgrouping.
    2. subtyping.
    3. discrimination.
    4. prejudice.

Page: 370     Type:  CON

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  1. Nicole mentions to you that she only takes courses with “young, hip professors.” Nicole is engaged in
    1. subgrouping.
    2. subtyping.
    3. discrimination.
    4. prejudice.

Page: 370     Type:  CON


 


 Chapter 10

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  1. Which of the following would be an example of aggression as defined in the text?
    1. Sam accidentally slams the car door too quickly, and it hits Tim's knee.
    2. Luisa urges her classmates not to vote for Marcy for dormitory senator, citing some rumors about Marcy's social life.
    3. Carla, a dentist, delivers a shot of Novocain before pulling her patient's diseased tooth.
    4. Joe's eagerness and enthusiasm result in his being promoted to sales manager in a very short time.

Page: 381     Type:  CON

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  1. _____ aggression aims to hurt only as a means to some other end.
    1. Manipulative
    2. Duplicitous
    3. Hostile
    4. Instrumental

Page: 381     Type:  DEF

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  1. Most terrorism is _____ aggression.
    1. manipulative
    2. duplicitous
    3. hostile
    4. instrumental

Page: 381     Type:  FAC

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  1. Most murders are _____ aggression.
    1. manipulative
    2. duplicitous
    3. hostile
    4. instrumental

Page: 381     Type:  FAC

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  1. Of the following, which is the best example of instrumental aggression?
    1. An angry football player tackles a quarterback after he has attempted a long pass.
    2. A jealous wife finds her husband with another woman and shoots them both.
    3. A group of mercenaries, hired to kill the dictator of a small country, arrange to poison him.
    4. A man smashes his TV set after he cannot make it work.

Page: 382     Type:  CON

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  1. Cold, calculated mob murders should be classified as
    1. genetically based.
    2. hostile aggression.
    3. instrumental aggression.
    4. silent aggression.

Page: 382     Type:  DEF

 

  1. Which theory is most susceptible to the criticism of trying to explain aggression by naming it?
    1. instrumental aggression theory
    2. instinct theory
    3. frustration-aggression theory
    4. social-learning theory

Page: 382     Type:  FAC

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  1. Which one of the following is NOT one of the reasons that Buss and Shackelford (1997) believe aggression was adaptive for our distant ancestors?
    1. It was a strategy for gaining resources.
    2. It helped people defend against attacks.
    3. It intimidated or eliminated male rivals for females.
    4. None of the above.

Page: 383     Type:  FAC

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  1. A study of brain activity in the prefrontal cortex of murderers found
    1. no differences between these men and normal controls.
    2. 14 percent less activity than normal.
    3. 95 percent less activity than normal.
    4. 95 percent more activity than normal.

Page: 383     Type:  FAC

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  1. How intense and reactive we are in infancy reflects our
    1. serotonin levels.
    2. aggressive instinct.
    3. temperament.
    4. social learning.

Page: 384     Type:  DEF

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  1. Research has found that when measured in infancy, temperament
    1. usually changes.
    2. usually endures.
    3. sometimes changes given the occurrence of stressful life events.
    4. b and c.

Page: 384     Type:  FAC

 

  1. MacDonald and others (2000) have found that intoxicated people administer stronger shocks and feel angrier when thinking about
    1. their physical shortcomings.
    2. their grades in college.
    3. relationship conflicts.
    4. all of the above.

Page: 384     Type:  FAC

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  1. Research on alcohol and aggression has indicated that
    1. over half of rapists surveyed report they had been drinking before committing their offense.
    2. people who have been drinking commit more than half of all homicides.
    3. in experiments, intoxicated people administer stronger shocks.
    4. all of the above.

Page: 384-385     Type:  FAC

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  1. Studies of hormonal influences on aggression indicate that
    1. hormonal influences are as strong in humans as they are in lower animals.
    2. after age 25, testosterone and rates of violent crime decrease together.
    3. variations in testosterone seem to have no effect on behavior within the normal range of teen boys and adult men.
    4. all of the above.

Page: 385     Type:  FAC

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  1. Jessie's car had a flat tire in the rain. After she managed to fix it, she arrived home late only to have a parking spot just in front of her apartment taken by a faster driver. Coming home, she kicks her pet cat who is waiting at the door. Jessie's behavior is perhaps most easily explained in terms of
    1. frustration-aggression theory.
    2. the adaptation-level phenomenon.
    3. Murphy's law.
    4. social learning theory.

Page: 385     Type:  CON

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  1. The redirection of aggression to a target other than the source of frustration is referred to as
    1. displacement.
    2. substitution.
    3. instrumental aggression.
    4. projection.

Page: 386     Type:  DEF

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  1. Displaced aggression is most likely when the target _____ to the instigator.
    1. shares no similarity
    2. shares some similarity
    3. is somehow related
    4. all of the above

Page: 386     Type:  FAC

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  1. Research indicates that there is a _____ relationship between the unemployment rate in the United States and the incidence of violent crime.
    1. positive
    2. negative
    3. neutral
    4. a or b, depending on the season

Page: 388     Type:  FAC

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  1. After the Detroit riots of 1967, the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders concluded that when there occurs a “revolution of _____,” frustrations can escalate even while conditions improve.
    1. poverty
    2. abstinence
    3. helplessness
    4. rising expectations

Page: 388     Type:  FAC

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  1. The perception that one is less well off than others to whom one compares oneself is referred to as
    1. the adaptation level phenomenon.
    2. relative deprivation.
    3. Parkinson's second law.
    4. the unjust-world principle.

Page: 389     Type:  DEF

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  1. Arvid didn't work very hard on his last class essay assignment, so he was relieved at first to find he'd gotten a “C” on it. But when he learned that most of his classmates had gotten “B's” and “A's”, he felt unhappy and angry about his grade. Arvid's experience is best explained in terms of
    1. the adaptation-level phenomenon.
    2. the relative deprivation principle.
    3. displacement.
    4. Parkinson's second law.

Page: 389     Type:  CON

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  1. Jeremy instigates more and more fights with younger children on the school playground because it gains him the attention and respect of his friends. This most clearly suggests that his aggression is
    1. the result of frustration.
    2. instinctive.
    3. a learned response.
    4. the result of displacement.

Page: 390     Type:  CON

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  1. Compared to the national rate, abused children are _______ times _______ likely to abuse their own children.
    1. 4; less
    2. 4; more
    3. 30; more
    4. 40; more

Page: 391     Type:  FAC

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  1. In the Southern culture of honor, White men are
    1. twice as likely as rural Midwestern White men to have guns for protection.
    2. half as likely to agree that “a man has a right to kill to defend his home.”
    3. twice as likely to be against spanking.
    4. half as likely to support wars.

Page: 392     Type:  FAC

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  1. Which of the following has NOT been linked with aggressive behavior according to your text?
    1. offensive odors
    2. cigarette smoke
    3. air pollution
    4. dog barking

Page: 394     Type:  FAC

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  1. In relation to aggression, the most studied environmental irritant is
    1. pain.
    2. cigarette smoke.
    3. air pollution.
    4. heat.

Page: 394     Type:  FAC

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  1. Violent crimes are more likely
    1. in the winter than summer months.
    2. when the weather is hot.
    3. on nights with a full moon.
    4. none of the above.

Page: 394     Type:  FAC

 

  1. Given the review of research on heat and aggression in your text, you can conclude that the relationship between these two variables is _____.
    1. positive
    2. negative
    3. neutral
    4. curvilinear

Page: 394     Type:  CON

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  1. Berkowitz and LePage (1967) found that frustrated men delivered more shocks when
    1. guns happened to be in the room.
    2. badminton rackets happened to be in the room.
    3. they had just received a shot that lowers serotonin levels.
    4. they were initially depressed.

Page: 396     Type:  FAC

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  1. Which of the following has been found to be an effect of modeling sexual violence in movies and television?
    1. Women are more likely to believe rape is a serious crime.
    2. Men become more accepting of violence against women.
    3. Women become more aggressive toward other women.
    4. All of the above.

Page: 398     Type:  FAC

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  1. “Watching violence on television gives people a harmless opportunity to vent their aggression.” This statement is most clearly consistent with the _____ hypothesis.
    1. sensitization
    2. catharsis
    3. frustration-aggression
    4. social learning

Page: 404     Type:  CON

 

  1. As part of therapy, a clinical psychologist encourages her patients to install a punching bag in their homes to release hostility. The therapist apparently believes in
    1. social learning theory.
    2. Parkinson's second law.
    3. the catharsis hypothesis.
    4. the adaptation-level phenomenon.

Page: 404     Type:  CON

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  1. Gallup youth surveys show that the percent of 13- to 17-year-olds feeling there was too much movie violence has _____.
    1. increased
    2. decreased
    3. stayed the same
    4. changed depending on geographic area

Page: 409     Type:  FAC

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  1. Gallup youth surveys show that the percent of 13- to 17-year-olds feeling there was too much movie violence has decline from ___ percent in 1977 to ____ percent in 2003.
    1. 98; 52
    2. 76; 43
    3. 42; 27
    4. 23; 08

Page: 409     Type:  FAC

 

  1. According to Anderson (2003), three dozen available studies on video games and their effects reveal ____ consistent effects.
    1. 0
    2. 2
    3. 5
    4. 7

Page: 411     Type:  FAC

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  1. Which of the following is not one of the five consistent effects that Anderson (2003) has found to be associated with video games?
    1. increased interest in drugs and alcohol
    2. increased aggressive thinking
    3. increased arousal
    4. decreased prosocial behaviors.

Page: 411-412     Type:  FAC

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  1. Anderson's (2003) research on the effects of video games has reported that there is_____ relationship between violent game play and frequency of arguments with teachers.
    1. a positive
    2. a negative
    3. a neutral
    4. no

Page: 412     Type:  FAC

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  1. Bushman (2002) invited angered participants to hit a punching bag while either ruminating about the person who angered them or thinking about becoming physically fit. A third group of participants did not hit the punching bag. When given a chance to administer loud blasts of noise to the person who angered them, people in the _____ condition felt angrier and were more aggressive.
    1. not punching bag
    2. punching bag plus fitness thoughts
    3. punching bag plus rumination
    4. none of the above

Type:  FAC

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  1. Bradshaw's books on “reclaiming your inner child” suggest techniques that are consistent with what social psychologists call
    1. inhibiting impulses.
    2. the cathartic effect.
    3. diffusing responsibility.
    4. providing role models.

Page: 418     Type:  FAC

 


 Chapter 12

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  1. While walking down the street with your friend Sabrina the other day, she stopped to ask a child why he was crying. The boy said that he was lost, so Sabrina took time out of her busy day to help the child find his way home. Sarbrina's behavior can be characterized by
    1. the social responsibility norm.
    2. egoism.
    3. social-exchange theory.
    4. altruism.

Page: 477     Type:  DEF

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  1. According to the text, _____ provides the classic illustration of pure altruism.
    1. the parable of the Prodigal Son
    2. the parable of the Good Samaritan
    3. the Kitty Genovese case
    4. the Sylvia Likens case

Answer: B     Page: 477     Type:  FAC

 

  1. The opposite of altruism is _____.
    1. apathy
    2. antipathy
    3. egoism
    4. selfishness

Page: 477     Type:  FAC

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  1. Altruism is to _____ as egoism is to _____.
    1. Gouldner; Batson
    2. reciprocity; social justice
    3. evolutionary theory; social norms theory
    4. another's welfare; one's own welfare

Page: 479     Type:  CON

  

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  1. Francine, who is 6, realizes how upsetting it is for another child in her class to lose her backpack. Social psychologists would predict that Francine
    1. would take pleasure in helping the other child find her backpack.
    2. would take pleasure in helping the other child find her backpack, but only if she were to gain recognition for helping.
    3. would not take pleasure in helping the other child find her backpack.
    4. none of the above.

Page: 481     Type:  CON

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  1. Few findings have been more consistent than the fact that _____ people are helpful people.
    1. happy
    2. well-rested
    3. well-educated
    4. easy-going

Page: 482     Type:  FAC

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  1. Studies of the effects of mood on helping suggest that adults who feel _______ are more likely than those in a neutral control condition to help.
    1. guilty
    2. sad
    3. happy
    4. all of the above

Page: 482     Type:  FAC

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  1. According to research cited in the text, which of the following is the correct order?
    1. positive mood, then positive behavior, then positive thoughts and positive self-esteem
    2. positive behavior, then positive thoughts and positive self-esteem, then positive mood
    3. positive behavior, then positive mood, then positive thoughts and positive self-esteem
    4. positive mood, then positive thoughts and positive self-esteem, then positive behavior

Page: 483     Type:  FAC

 

  1. After Mr. Walters' neighbor helped him paint his house, Mr. Walters felt obligated to offer to help the neighbor remodel his kitchen. Mr. Walters' sense of obligation most likely resulted from the
    1. door-in-the-face phenomenon.
    2. social responsibility norm.
    3. reciprocity norm.
    4. equal status norm.

Page: 484     Type:  CON

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  1. The relationship between the ability to reciprocate and how demeaned one feels by accepting help is
    1. positive.
    2. negative.
    3. neutral.
    4. curvilinear.

Page: 484     Type:  FAC

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  1. Ian is from England, Panayiotis is from Greece, and Tikh is a man from India. Which one of these people is most likely to support and act on the norm of social responsibility?
    1. Ian
    2. Panayiotis
    3. Tikh
    4. Ian and Panayiotis are both more likely than Tikh

Page: 485     Type:  CON

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  1. The research on gender and helping norms reveals that ____ offered more help when the persons in need were females, and ____ offered help equally to males and females.
    1. men; women
    2. women; men
    3. older men; younger women
    4. younger men; older women

Page: 486     Type:  FAC

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  1. ____ are twice as likely as ____ to seek medical and psychiatric help.
    1. European-Americans; Asian-Americans
    2. Asian-Americans; European-Americans
    3. Men; women
    4. Women; men

Page: 486     Type:  FAC

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  1. Evolutionary psychology contends that the essence of life is
    1. gene survival.
    2. self-actualization.
    3. holistic health.
    4. the discovery of meaning.

Page: 487     Type:  DEF

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  1. According to evolutionary theory, genetic selfishness predisposes us toward helping based on
    1. reciprocity.
    2. social responsibility.
    3. social justice.
    4. egoism.

Page: 487     Type:  FAC

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  1. The idea that evolution has selected altruism toward one's close relatives to enhance the survival of mutually shared genes is referred to as
    1. evolutionary kinship.
    2. altruistic selection.
    3. kin selection.
    4. self-serving helpfulness.

Page: 487     Type:  DEF

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  1. People who live in _____ are least likely to relay a phone message, mail lost letters, cooperate with survey interviewers, do small favors, or help a lost child.
    1. big cities
    2. small towns
    3. rural environments
    4. apartments

Page: 488     Type:  FAC

 

 

  1. Since we are born selfish, evolutionary psychologists such as Richard Dawkins propose that we attempt to
    1. develop a drug that will encourage altruism.
    2. develop an “altruistic gene.”
    3. teach altruism.
    4. live only in small, isolated communities.

Page: 488     Type:  FAC

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  1. According to the text, which theory of altruism provides a coherent scheme for summarizing a variety of observations?
    1. social norms
    2. social-exchange
    3. evolutionary
    4. all of the above

Page: 489     Type:  FAC

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  1. ___ is an emotion evoked by sympathy for another.
    1. Egoism
    2. Empathy
    3. Altruism
    4. Voyeurism

Page: 490     Type:  DEF

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  1. Latané and Darley (1968) had university students complete questionnaires in a small room, and then had smoke pour into the room from a wall vent. Students who were working  _____tended to notice the smoke _____.
    1. in groups; in less than five seconds
    2. alone; in less than five seconds.
    3. on a challenging task; in about 20 seconds
    4. on a rote task; in less than five seconds

Page: 496-497     Type:  FAC

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  1. The tendency to overestimate others' ability to “read” our internal states is called the illusion of _____.
    1. deceit
    2. visibility
    3. awareness
    4. transparency

Page: 497     Type:  DEF

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  1. Which of the following factors is likely to increase helping behavior?
    1. the presence of others who offer help
    2. the presence of others who do nothing
    3. time pressure
    4. being nonreligious

Page: 503     Type:  FAC

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  1. DeBruine (2002) found that when students played an interactive game with a supposed other player, participants were ______ when the other person's pictured face had some features of their own face morphed into it.
    1. more trusting but less generous
    2. more trusting and more generous
    3. less trusting but more generous
    4. less trusting and less generous

Page: 504     Type:  FAC

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  1. Confederates who were dressed either conservatively or in counterculture garb approached either “straight” or “hip” college students and asked for change to make a phone call. Results of this experiment confirmed a _____ bias in helping.
    1. familiarity
    2. similarity
    3. credibility
    4. complementarity

Page: 505     Type:  FAC

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  1. Compared to low self-monitoring people, high self-monitoring people are especially helpful if they think that
    1. no one is watching them.
    2. helping will be effective.
    3. helpfulness will be socially rewarded.
    4. no one else is likely to help.

Page: 506     Type:  FAC

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  1. A racial bias in helping is least likely to emerge when
    1. norms for appropriate behavior are well-defined.
    2. norms for appropriate behavior are ambiguous.
    3. the victim is well-dressed.
    4. the situation is ambiguous.

Page: 507     Type:  FAC

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  1. According to the text, individuals who identify as ______ in terms of spiritual commitment were most likely to report working among the poor, infirm, or elderly.
    1. highly uncommitted
    2. moderately uncommitted
    3. moderately committed
    4. highly committed

Page: 508     Type:  FAC

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  1. Which of the following is an effective way to increase helping behavior?
    1. reduce the ambiguity of the situation
    2. model prosocial behavior
    3. make people feel guilty
    4. all of the above

Page: 508-509     Type:  FAC

 

  1. Researchers have found that with door-to-door solicitation, there is more success when requests for contributions are
    1. random.
    2. systematic.
    3. large.
    4. small.

Page: 511     Type:  FAC

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  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the ways Myers suggests to socialize altruism?
    1. teach moral inclusion
    2. learn about egoism
    3. model altruism
    4. attribute helping behavior to altruism

Page: 512-513     Type:  FAC

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  1. Regarding people who are different as within one's circle of moral concern is called
    1. moral exclusion.
    2. moral inclusion.
    3. exclusive altruism.
    4. ingroup moralism.

Page: 512     Type:  DEF

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  1. Both European Christians who risked their lives to rescue Jews during the Nazi era and civil rights activists of the 1950s report that
    1. they came from families who themselves had been victims of some form of social injustice.
    2. they had warm, close relationships with at least one parent who was a “strong moralist,” committed to humanitarian causes.
    3. their efforts were in part a reaction to having been raised in a troubled family environment in which parents and children were in frequent conflict.
    4. they were firstborn or only children whose parents had taught them courage and independence.

Page: 513-514     Type:  FAC