Rutgers University

Spring 2002

Dr. James W. Jones.

Office: Loree 132

Office Hours: M 11-12:00, W 10:00-12:00 & by appointment

Phone: 932-9623 [Please use this phone number and not email to contact Dr. Jones]

Purpose: This course will review the early history of psychoanalysis in America. We will chart the changes that take place in psychoanalytic theorizing as the field  moves further from its European roots. We will pay special attention to the interest in religion on the part of many of the first generation of analysts in America and situate the early dialogue between psychoanalysis and theology in its historical context and address as well as the ongoing interest in psychoanalysis and Buddhism.

Requirements: This class will be conducted as a seminar and so it is expected that students will have done the reading and will come to each class prepared to participate. Class participation will be a major part of the final grade. To facilitate discussion, students are required to hand in two, brief (4-5 page) critical reviews of  readings  before the two weeks devoted entirely to discussion. They are due by the start of class on 2/27 and 3/27. No extensions will be given.  In addition, an essay of  8-10 pages is due by noon, one week after the last day of class, on 5/13/02, on the following topic: “Drawing on the relevant figures from this course, discuss some of the implicit assumptions about human nature and human understanding found in American psychoanalysis. How do these assumptions both open up and limit the dialogue between psychoanalysis and religion?”  No extensions will be given.



Four books are required for this course and are at New Jersey Books::

Karen Horney, Neurosis and Human Growth

Erich Fromm, Psychoanalysis and Religion

Rollo May, The Discovery of Being

J.W. Jones, Religion and Psychology in Transition: Psychoanalysis, Feminism, and


All other material is in a packet of readings available from New Jersey books.

                                                              COURSE OUTLINE

1/23 - Introduction

                      1.  Psychoanalysis comes to America (week of 1/28)

                      2. The Cultural Interpersonal School: Karen Horney (week of 2/4)


Karen Horney, Neurosis and Human Growth

Paul Tillich,  “Karen Horney: A funeral address”


B. Paris, Karen Horney

M Westkott, The Feminist Legacy of Karen Horney

                      3. The Cultural Interpersonal School: Erich Fromm (week of 2/11)


Erich Fromm, Psychoanalysis and Religion


Pastoral Psychology issue of Sept. 1955 devoted to Erich Fromm including  Paul Tillich’s

      review of “Erich Fromm’s The Sane Society” and Erich Fromm “Are we sane?”

D. Browning, Generative Man

C. Thompson, Psychoanalysis: Evolution and Development

D. Stern, C, Mann, S. Kantor, G. Schlesinger,  Pioneers of Interpersonal Psychoanalysis

P. Mullahy, Oedipus Myth and Complex

                      4. Psychoanalysis and Buddhism in the 40’s and 50’s (2/18)


E. Fromm, T.D. Suzuki, R. DeMartino, Zen Buddhism and Psychoanalysis,

     “Psychoanalysis and Buddhism” by Erich Fromm


A.     Molino, The Couch and the Tree

M. Mestkott, “Karen Horney’s Encounter with Zen, “ in Jacobs & Capps, Religion, Society and Psychoanalysis

                       5. Existential Psychoanalysis (week of 2/25; brief critical review of

                                 Horney, Fromm, or May due at the start of class 2/27)


 R. May,  The Discovery of Being.


R. May, E. Angel, H. Ellenberger, Existence

                       6. Discussion Week: American Psychoanalysis (week of 3/ 4)

                      7. Psychoanalysis and Theology in the 40’s and 50’s (week of 3/11)


 Paul Tillich, “The impact of pastoral psychology on theological thought,” from H.

     Hofmann,  The Ministry and Mental Health  [was first published in Pastoral

     Psychology,  1960, 11:101 and later published as a pamphlet under the title “The

     impact of   psychotherapy on theological thought”]

Paul Tillich, “Existentialism, psychotherapy, and the nature of man,” and  “Symposium:

      Human nature can change” in , S. Doniger (ed.) The Nature of Man in Theological

       and Psychological Perspective,


P. Tillich, Theology of Culture

H. Tillich, From Time to Time

R. May, Paulus

                    8. The Cultural Theological Critique of Psychoanalysis in the 50’s 

                        (week of 3/25; brief critical review of Tillich or Niebuhr due start of class

                           3/27; no class week of 3/18)


 R. Niebuhr, The self and the dramas of history, chapters 12, 16, 18.

S. Doniger (ed.),  The Nature of Man in Theological and Psychological Perspective,

      “Carl Rogers and others ‘Niebuhr on the nature of man,’”


P. Rieff, Freud: The Mind of the Moralist

P. Rieff, The Triumph of the Therapeutic

                     9. Discussion Week: Theology and Psychoanalysis in the 40’s (week of


                     9. American Psychoanalysis Today: Inter-personal, Relational, Self-

                                                  Psychological  (week of 4/8)


J. W. Jones, “The Relational Self: Contemporary Psychoanalysis Reconsiders Religion” 

      from the Journal of The American Academy of Religion, 1991, 59(4).

J. W. Jones,  Religion and Psychology in Transition, chapters 2 & 3.

J. McDargh, “God, mother and me: An object relational perspective on religious

      material” from Pastoral Psychology, 1986, 34(4)


J. W. Jones,  Contemporary Psychoanalysis and Religion

Black & Mitchell, Freud and Beyond

Jacobs & Capps, Religion, Society and Psychoanalysis

J. McDargh, Object Relations Theory and the Study of Religion

M. Finn & J. Gartner,  Object Relations Theory and Religion

                      10. Psychoanalysis and Buddhism Today (week of 4/15)


J. Rubin, Psychotherapy and Buddhism, chapters 3, 4, 10

Mark Finn “Transitional Space and Tibetan Buddhism: The object relations of

     meditation,” from M. Finn & J. Gartner,  Object Relations Theory and Religion


M Epstein, Thoughts Without a Thinker

A. Molino, The Couch and the Tree

                      11. Psychoanalysis and Theology Today (week of 4/22)


J.W. Jones, Religion and Psychology in Transition: Psychoanalysis, Feminism, and

                    Theology, chapters 4, 5, 7, conclusion.


Jacobs & Capps, Religion, Society and Psychoanalysis

J. W. Jones & N. Goldenberg, “Transforming Psychoanalysis: Feminism and Religion” in

      Pastoral Psychology, 1992, 40(6).

J.W. Jones “Religion and Psychology in Transition: How it came to  be written,” and

      “Response to Critics,” with commentary by D. Jonte-Pace & B. Miller-McLemore,  

       Pastoral  Psychology, 47(3,), 1999.

                      12. Summary: Looking Backward and Forward (4/29)

5/6 – Last day of class

5//13 – final essays due by noon today. Please remember: no extensions.




Rutgers University

Spring 2002

Dr. James W. Jones



                                                    Psychoanalysis (Freud)

                        Horney                    Fromm                 May              Tillich   

Zen Buddhism                                                                                  Liberal Protestantism

D.T. Suzuki

                                       Marxism                                  Existentialism

                              Early “humanistic” Marx                     J.P. Sartre

                                                                                        M. Heidegger

                                                                                         S. Kierkegaard


                     Contemporary Relational Theory            Inter-Subjective Theory

Ego Psychology    Cultural-Interpersonal      British Object Relations   Self Psychology

A. Freud,                  K. Horney,                       W.R.D. Fairbairn            H. Kohut

H. Hartmann            H.S. Sullivan                    D. W. Winnicott 

E. Erikson                E. Fromm                          M. Klein

                                                         S. Freud                                              C. Jung

                                        PAUL TILLICH

Theological methods:

1.      Method of correlation: Philosophy & Psychology raise “questions of existence.” Theology provides the answers since they must come from beyond the limits of the finite world.

2.      Theology as translation. Translate theological terms into more contemporary categories

God = “Ground of Being,” “Being itself,” the source of all that is.

Sign and Symbol:

·        Signs: purely arbitrary, ie. Traffic signs.

·        Symbols: point to a reality beyond themselves and participate in that reality, ie., nation’s  flag, bread & wine in Eucharist

Faith: “the state of being grasped by the ultimate” – the Ultimate breaks in upon us from

           beyond finite world.

           Not (1)a belief in a set of propositions – intellectual distortion, (2)actions we must

           do - volitional distortion, (3)feelings – emotional distortion; but a “state” prior to

           all three that may result in all three.