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The following languages illustrate the semantic typology proposed in my Temporality book (Bittner 2014). The basic idea is that every language has a grammatical centering system that keeps track of one or two types of top-ranked discourse referents. Grammatical tense keeps track of top-ranked times; grammatical aspect, of top-ranked eventualities (events or states); and grammatical mood, of top-ranked illocutionary perspectives. Ranked discourse referents can be formally represented in Update with Centering (UC), a typed dynamic logic with rank-based anaphora. Logical representations in UC can be derived by directly compositional rules of Categorial Grammar (CG). The combined framework is called CG.UC (CG composition with UC representation).

Tense-based languages 

  • English (Germanic, Indo-European): CG.UC fragments (see Bittner 2014: Ch. 8)

Aspect-based languages

Mood-based languages 

Tense-aspect-based languages

  • Polish (Slavic, Indo-European): CG.UC fragment (see Bittner 2014: Ch. 9)

Aspect-mood-based languages 

Tense-mood-based languages

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© Maria Bittner 2012