The following papers are required reading for lectures. Papers denoted as REVIEWS should be read by all, but are not up for grabs for student presentations. The remaining papers are available for student presentations. Each student will be assigned one paper for presentation and discussion in class. This involves a brief oral summary of the paper (10 minutes, maximum), followed by a class discussion that will be guided by a list of stimulating and insightful discussion questions that you prepare. It is useful to prepare a one page handout that summarizes the main points of the paper, and lists the discussion questions that you develop. Copies of papers can be found in Room 145 (ENRS), and of course the originals reside in the stacks of the library and many can be downloaded from JSTOR. Copies can be signed out for short-term use, but should not be taken for long periods of time (= days).

Sept. 15 Interspecific Competition I

Connell, J. H. 1961. The influence of interspecific competition and other factors on the distribution of the barnacle Chthamalus stellatus. Ecology 42: 710-723.

Gurevitch, J. 1986. Competition and the local distribution of the grass Stipa neomexicana. Ecology 67: 46-57.

REVIEW: Schoener, T. W. 1983. Field experiments on interspecific competition. Amer. Natur. 122: 240-285.

Sept. 22 Interspecific Competition II

Hairston, N. G. 1980. The experimental test of an analysis of field distributions: competition in terrestrial salamanders. Ecology 61: 817-826.

Pacala, S and J. Roughgarden. 1982. Resource partitioning and interspecific competition in two two-species insular Anolis lizard communities. Science 217: 444-446.

Tilman, D. 1977. Resource competition between planktonic algae: an experimental and theoretical approach. Ecology 58: 338-348.

REVIEW: Goldberg, D.E. and A.M. Barton. 1992. Patterns and consequences of interspecific competition in natural communities: a review of field experiments with plants. Amer. Natur. 139: 771-801.




Sept. 29 Predation I

Paine, R. T. 1966. Food web complexity and species diversity. Amer. Natur.100: 65-75.

Lubchenco, J. 1978. Plant species diversity in a marine intertidal community: importance of herbivore food preference and algal competitive abilities. Amer. Natur. 112: 23-39.

Addicott, J. F. 1974. Predation and prey community structure: an experimental study of the effect of mosquito larvae on the protozoan communities of pitcher plants. Ecology 55: 475-492.

REVIEW: Sih, A., et al. 1985. Predation, competition, and prey communities: a review of field experiments. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 16: 269-311.

Oct. 6 Predation II

McPeek, M.A. 1998. The consequences of changing the top predator in a food web: a comparative experimental approach. Ecological Monographs 68: 1-23.

Brooks, J. L. and S. I. Dodson. 1965. Predation, body size, and composition of plankton. Science 150: 28-35.

Carson, Walter P., Richard B. Root, 2000. Herbivory and plant species coexistence: community regulation by an outbreaking phytophagous insect. Ecological Monographs: Vol. 70, No. 1, pp. 73-99.

REVIEW: Holt, R. D. and J. H. Lawton. 1994. The ecological consequences of shared natural enemies. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 25: 495-520.

Oct. 13 Food Webs

Kaunzinger, C. M. K. and P. J.Morin. 1998. Productivity controls food chain properties in microbial communities. Nature 395: 495-497.

Post, D., M. L. Pace, and N. G. Hairston Jr. 2000. Ecosystem size determines food-chain length in lakes. Nature 405: 1047-1049.

McCann, K., A. Hastings, and G. R. Huxel. 1998. Weak trophic interactions and the balance of nature. Nature 395:794-798.

REVIEW: Pimm, S. L., J. H. Lawton, and J. E. Cohen. 1991. Food web patterns and their consequences. Nature 669-674.

Oct. 20 Mutualisms

Grime, J. P., J. M. L. Mackey, S. H. Hillier, and D. J. Read. 1987. Floristic diversity in a model system using experimental microcosms. Nature 328: 420-422.

Bertness, M. D. and S. W. Shumway. 1993. Competition and facilitation in marsh plants. Amer. Natur. 142: 718-724.

Suzanne W. Simard, David A. Perry, Melanie D. Jones, David D. Myrold, Daniel M. Durall & Randy Molina. 1997. Net transfer of carbon between ectomycorrhizal tree species in the field. Nature 388, 579 - 582.

REVIEW: Bertness, M.D. and R. Callaway. 1994. Positive interactions in communities. TREE 9: 191-193.


Nov. 3 Indirect Effects

Schmitt, R. J. 1987. Indirect interactions between prey: apparent competition, predator aggregation, and habitat segregation. Ecology 68: 1887-1897.

Davidson, D. W., R. S. Inouye, and J. H. Brown. 1984. Granivory in a desert ecosystem: experimental evidence or indirect facilitation of ants by rodents. Ecology 65: 1780-1786.

Bonsall, M. B., and M. P. Hassell. 1997. Apparent competition structures ecological assemblages. Nature 388:371-373.

REVIEW: Wootton, J. T. 1994. The nature and consequences of indirect effects in natural communities. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 25: 443-466


Nov. 10 Habitat Selection

Werner, E. E., et al. 1983. An experimental test of the effects of predation risk on habitat use in fish. Ecology 64: 1540-1548.

Sih, A. 1982. Foraging strategies and the avoidance of predation by an aquatic insect, Notonecta hoffmanni. Ecology 63: 786-796.

Kotler, Burt P., Joel S. Brown, Oren Hasson, 1991: Factors Affecting Gerbil Foraging Behavior and Rates of Owl Predation. Ecology: Vol. 72, No. 6, pp. 2249-2260.

REVIEW: Partridge, L. 1978. Habitat selection. J.R. Krebs and N.B. Davies, eds. In: Behavioral ecology: an evolutionary approach. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Sunderland, MA.

Nov. 17 Spatial Dynamics

Simberloff, D. S. and E. O. Wilson. 1969. Experimental zoogeography of islands: the colonization of empty islands. Ecology 50: 278-296.

Bengtsson, J. 1989. Interspecific competition increases local extinction rate in a metapopulation system. Nature 340: 713-715.

Holyoak, M. & S.P. Lawler. 1996. Persistence of an extinction prone predator prey interaction through metapopulation dynamics. Ecology 77:1867-1879.

Review: Hanski, I. 1998. Metapopulation dynamics. Nature 396:41-49.

Nov. 24 Causes and Consequences of Diversity I

Kassen, R., A. Buckling, G. Bell, and P. Rainey. 2000. Diversity peaks at intermediate productivity in a laboratory microcosm. Nature 406: 508-512.

Sousa, W. P. 1979. Disturbance in marine intertidal boulder fields: the nonequilibrium maintenance of species diversity. Ecology 60: 1225-1239.

Chase, J. M., and M. A. Leibold. 2002. Spatial scale dictates the productivity-biodiversity relationship. Nature 416:427-430.

REVIEW: Connell, J. H. 1978. Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs. Science 199: 1302-1310

REVIEW: Leibold, M. A., J. M. Chase, J. B. Shurin, and A. L. Downing. 1997. Species turnover and the regulation of trophic structure. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 28: 467-494.


Dec. 1 Causes and Consequences of Diversity II

Tilman, D., P. B. Reich, J. Knops, D. Wedin, T. Mielke, and C. Lehman. 2001. Diversity and Productivity in a Long-Term Grassland Experiment. Science 294:843-845.

Hector, A. et al. 1999. Plant diversity and productivity experiments in European grasslands. Science 286: 1123-1100.

Boris Worm, Heike K. Lotze, Helmut Hillebrand, Ulrich Sommer. 2002. Consumer versus resource control of species diversity and ecosystem functioning . Nature 417, 848 - 851.

REVIEWS: Cottingham, K. L, B. L. Brown, J. T. Lennon. 2001. Biodiversity may regulate the temporal variability of ecological systems. Ecology Letters 4: 72-85.

Schwartz, M. W., C. A. Brigham, J. D. Hoeksema, K.G.Lyons, M. H. Mills, and P. J.Van Mantgem. 1999. Linking biodiversity to ecosystem function: implications for conservation ecology. Oecologia 122: 297-305.

Dec. 8 Temporal Dynamics / Succession

Inouye, R. S., et al. 1987. Old-field succession on a Minnesota sand plain. Ecology 68: 12-26.

Weatherby, A. J., P. H. Warren, and R. Law. 1998. Coexistence and collapse: an experimental investigation of the persistent communities of a protist species pool. J. Anim. Ecol. 67: 554-566.

Fukami, T., and P. J. Morin. 2003. Productivity-biodiversity relationships depend on the history of community assembly. Nature 424:423-426.

REVIEWS: Connell, J. H. and R. O. Slatyer. 1977. Mechanisms of succession in natural communities and their role in community stability and organization. Amer. Natur. 111: 1119-1144.

Pickett, S. T. A., and M. J. McDonnell. 1989. Changing perspectives in community dynamics: a theory of successional forces. TREE 4: 241-245.