Tectonic, Depositional, and Paleoecological History of Early Mesozoic Rift Basins, Eastern North America

Table of Contents

PART I: OVERVIEW OF NEWARK SUPERGROUP, 1

INTRODUCTION, 1
TECTONIC CONTEXT, 1
LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC, BIOSTRATIGRAPHIC, AND CHRONOSTRATIGRAPHIC FRAMEWORK, 2
Milankovitch Cycles and Cyclostratigraphy, 3
DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENTS AND EXTENSIONAL BASIN FILLING MODEL, 5
APPARENT POLAR WANDER PATHS AND PALEOMAGNETISM OF BASIN SEDIMENTARY ROCKS, 6
EARLY MESOZOIC EASTERN NORTH AMERICAN MAGMATISM: FIRST-ORDER PROBLEMS AND CONSTRAINTS, 8
DURATION AND AGE RELATIONS OF THE EASTERN NORTH AMERICAN THOLEIITES, 9
TECTONIC HISTORY, 12
Paleostress Patterns, 2
Summary of the Tectonic History of the Newark Supergroup, 14
Crustal-Scale Tectonics, 14
PATTERNS OF BIOLOGICAL CHANGE, 15

PART II: FIELD EXCURSION, 19

1. DEEP RIVER BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA, 19
GEOLOGY OF THE DEEP RIVER BASIN, 19
Introduction, 19
Lithostratigraphy, 20
Depositional History, 20
STOP 1.1: BOREN CLAY PRODUCTS QUARRY, GULF, NC, 23
STOP 1.2: BETHANY CHURCH, GULF, NC, 26
OPTIONAL STOP 1.2A: CHATHAM COAL COMPANY STRIP MINE, GULF, NC, 27
STOP 1.3: SANFORD FORMATION, 28
STOP 1.4: TRIANGLE BRICK QUARRY, DURHAM, NC, 29
STOP 1.5: FLUVIAL SEQUENCE AT RAILROAD CUT, DURHAM, NC, 31

2. DAN RIVERÑDANVILLE BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA AND VIRGINIA, 35
GEOLOGY OF THE DAN RIVER-DANVILLE BASIN, 35
Introduction, 35
Lithostratigraphy, 35
OPTIONAL STOP 2.1A: WHITE OAK MOUNTAIN NEAR DRY FORK, VA, 36
STOP 2.1: CHATHAM QUARRY, CHATHAM, VA, 37
STOP 2.2: SOLITE QUARRY, LEAKSVILLE JUNCTION, VA, 37
Cyclostratigraphy, 38
Paleontology and Environments, 39
"Syneresis Cracks", 41
Deformation, 42
STOP 2.3: WEBSTER BRICK COMPANY QUARRY, EDEN, NC, 44

3. RICHMOND BASIN, VIRGINIA, 47
GEOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND BASIN, 47
RICHMOND BASIN LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY AND PALEOENVIRONMENTS, 47
The Horner and Bailey Wells, 48
River Size and Form, 52
Lake Duration, 52
STOP 3.1: BLACKHEATH MINE, 52
STOP 3.2: TOMAHAWK TETRAPOD QUARRY, 54
STOP 3.3: OTTERDALE FORMATION, 55
STOP 3.4: BOSCABEL QUARRY, 56

4. CULPEPER BASIN, VIRGINIA, 59
GEOLOGY OF THE CULPEPER BASIN, 59
STOP 4.1: CULPEPER CRUSHED STONE QUARRY, CULPEPER (STEVENSBURG), VA, 60
Lithostratigraphy and Cyclostratigraphy, 60
Paleontology, 62
STOP 4.2: THOROUGHFARE GAP, VA, 63
STOP 4.3: HAYMARKET QUARRY, 65
STOP 4.4: DINOSAUR TRACKS AT OAK HILL, 66
STOP 4.5: EVERGREEN MILLS AT GOOSE CREEK, SOUTH OF LEESBURG, VA, 6

5. NEWARK BASIN, PENNSYLVANIA AND NEW JERSEY, 69
GEOLOGY OF THE NEWARK BASIN, 69
Stratigraphy, 69
Basin Filling Model, 72
Structural Evolution, 73
STOP 5.1: PASSAIC FORMATION, 77
STOP 5.2: DOUGLASVILLE QUARRY OF POTTSTOWN TRAP ROCK COMPANY, 78
STOP 5.3: DOUGLASVILLE FOOTPRINT QUARRIES, 79
Stratigraphy and Evidence for Syndepositional Folding, 79
Shallow Ductile Deformation, 79
Footprints, 80
Vertebrate Ichnological Succession in the Newark Supergroup, 80
STOP 5.4: BORDER FAULT AT BOYERTOWN, 81
STOP 5.5: BUCKS COUNTY CRUSHED STONE QUARRY, 82
STOP 5.6: PEBBLE BLUFF, 83
STOP 5.7: MIDDLE LOCKATONG FORMATION AT BYRAM, 86
STOP 5.8: QUARRY IN PRALLSVILLE MEMBER OF STOCKTON FORMATION, 89

6. NEWARK BASIN, NEW JERSEY, 91
STOP 6.1: PASSAIC FORMATION ADJACENT TO DILTS CORNER FAULT, 91
STOP 6.2: THE GLEN NEAR PINES LAKE, POMPTON, NJ, 93
Stratigraphy of the Towaco Formation, 93
Stratigraphy and Structure of Cycle P4, 94
Semionotid Species Flocks in the Newark Basin, 94
STOP 6.3 - RIKER HILL, ROSELAND, NJ, 97
STOP 6.4: PREAKNESS BASALT, 97
STOP 6.5: ORANGE MOUNTAIN BASALT, 98
STOP 6.6: YALE QUARRY, KINGS BLUFF, WEEHAWKEN, NJ, 98
STOP 6.7: UNDERCLIFF ROAD TROLLEY CUT, FORT LEE, NJ, 103
STOP 6.8: ROSS BOAT DOCK, PALISADES INTERSTATE PARK, 104

7. HARTFORD BASIN, CONNECTICUT AND MASSACHUSETTS, 107
GEOLOGY OF THE HARTFORD AND DEERFIELD BASINS, 107
Structural Geology, 107
Stratigraphy and Basin Filling Model, 108
Broad Terrane Hypothesis, 108
STOP 7.1: NEW HAVEN ARKOSE, HAMDEN, CT, 109
STOP 7.2: CT 9 ROAD CUT, EAST BERLIN, CT, 110
Stratigraphy and Fourier Analysis, 110
"Dead Horses", 112
Hydrocarbons, 113
Paleontology, 113
OPTIONAL STOP 7.2a: I-91/CT 9 INTERCHANGE, 113
STOP 7.3: MINER BROOK, WESTFIELD, CT, 114
STOP 7.4: DINOSAUR STATE PARK, ROCKY HILL, CT, 114
STOP 7.5: UPPER PORTLAND FORMATION, BUCKLAND, CT, 115
STOP 7.6: HOLYOKE DAM, HOLYOKE, MA, 115
JURASSIC CONIFER ASSEMBLAGES AND THEIR PALEOCLIMATIC IMPLICATIONS, 117

8. HARTFORD AND DEERFIELD BASINS, MASSACHUSETTS, 119
STOP 8.1: MT. TOM SKI AREA, HOLYOKE, MA, 119
OPTIONAL STOP 8.2: GOAT PEAK LOOKOUT TOWER, MOUNT TOM STATE RESERVATION, HOLYOKE, MA, 120
OPTIONAL STOP 8.2A: SCENIC OVERLOOK OF MT. NONOTUCK, MOUNT TOM STATE RESERVATION, HOLYOKE, MA, 120
STOP 8.3: PRATT MUSEUM AND HITCHCOCK FOOTPRINT COLLECTION, AMHERST COLLEGE, 120
STOP 8.4: TURNERS FALLS DAM, TURNERS FALLS, MA, 121
Stratigraphy and Paleontology, 122
Structural Geology, 123
Field Stop Transect, 124
STOP 8.5: BARTON COVE, GILL, MA, 129

9. FUNDY SUB-BASIN, SOUTHEAST SHORE OF FUNDY BASIN, NOVA SCOTIA, 133
GEOLOGY OF THE FUNDY BASIN, 133
Stratigraphy, Depositional Environments and Paleontology, 133
Structural Geology, 134
STOP 9.1: ST. MARY'S BAY, ROSSWAY, NOVA SCOTIA, 135

10. FUNDY SUB-BASIN, SOUTH SHORE OF MINAS BASIN, NOVA SCOTIA, 139
STOP 10.1 (OPTIONAL): TENNYCAPE, 139
STOP 10.2: PADDY'S ISLAND NEAR MEDFORD, NS, 140
STOP 10.3: BLOMIDON PROVINCIAL PARK, CAPE BLOMIDON, 142
STOP 10.4: COVES ALONG SCOTS BAY, 145

11. MINAS SUB-BASIN, NORTH SHORE OF THE MINAS BASIN, NOVA SCOTIA, 149
STOP 11.1: CARRS BROOK NEAR LOWER ECONOMY, NS, 149
STOP 11.2: FIVE ISLANDS PROVINCIAL PARK, 150
STOP 11.3: WASSON BLUFF, 152
Structural Geology and Stratigraphy, 152
Paleontology, 159

Acknowledgments, 161

REFERENCES, 162

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