Basement-Involved Normal Faulting

"Map view" of top surface of scaled clay model of basement-involved normal faulting. The clay was deformed as a fault system propagated upward from a rigid basement block into the clay. Bright features are synthetic fault scarps dipping toward the base of the image; dark features are antithetic fault scarps dipping away from the base of the image. Although the basement fault is one continuous fault, the fault system in the cover consists of several segments arranged in a relay geometry, with relay ramps and cross faults between the overlapping segments. The strike of the fault segments is parallel to the trend of the deformed zone (left-right).
Vertical slice through clay model similar to the one above. The slice was prepared after the clay had dried and hardened. Faults cutting the uppermost blue clay layer correspond to those shown in the map view above. Both synthetic and antithetic faults are common, although synthetic faults have larger displacements. The experimental models were run at Mobil Technology Company by RWS, Martha Withjack, and Gloria Eisenstadt.