Contents

>>Introduction to Structural Geology
>>
Faults
>>
Experimental Modeling: Extension
>>Folds

>>
Strain
>>
Experimental Modeling: Shortening & Strain
>>
Foliations and lineations
>>
Ductile shear zones and kinematic indicators
>>
Joints and veins
>>
Extensional tectonics
>>
Salt tectonics
>>
Experimental Modeling: Strike Slip & Strain
>>Strike-slip tectonics

>>
Fold and thrust belts
>>
Primary structures, contacts & other structures
>>
Virtual Field Trip: Newfoundland Folds


Introduction to Structural Geology

Brittle and ductile deformation>>
Fluid-flow and jointing>>
San Andreas fault>>
Reverse fault scarp>>
Fold and thrust belt>>
Inclined bedding>>
Joint sets>>
Normal faults>>
Foliation (thin section)>>
Slickensides>>

Anticline & syncline>>
Growth faults>>
Fault surface>>
Deformed oolite>>
Deformed ooid and pressure shadow>>
Ptygmatic folds
Experimental boudins>>
Thin section of crenulation cleavage>>


Faults

Normal faults>>
Conjugate normal faults>>

Reverse fault>>
Reverse fault 2>>
Thrust fault>>
Strike-slip fault>>
Offset streams along strike-slip fault>>
Sinistral strike-slip faulting>>
Sinistral strike-slip faulting 2>>
Dextral strike-slip faulting>>
Dextral strike-slip faulting 2>>
Dextral strike-slip faulting 3>>
Dextral strike-slip faulting 4>>
Oblique-slip fault scarp>>
Oblique-slip fault scarp 2>>
Field of normal faults>>
Length-displacement scaling>>
Normal faults in cross section>>
Small relay ramp>>
Normal fault scarp>>
Normal fault scarp and footwall uplift>>
Segmented fault scarp>>
Footwall uplift mountains>>
Reverse fault scarp>>
Fault surface>>
Fault grooves>>
Slickensides>>
Fault separation>>
Drag fold>>
Fault breccia 1>>
Fault breccia 2>>
Fault breccia (thin section)>>
Cemented fault breccia>>
Faulting & fluid flow>>
Pseudotachylite>>

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Experimental Modeling: Extension

2007 Movie: Development of normal faults (high resolution)>>

2007 Movie: Development of normal faults (low resolution)>>

2007_Image: 4 cm displacement, light from moving wall>>

2007_Image: 4 cm displacement, light from fixed wall>>

2004 Movie: Development of normal faults (high resolution)>>

2004 Movie: Development of normal faults (low resolution)>>

2004 Image: 4 cm displacement, light from fixed wall>>

2004 Image: 4 cm displacement, light from moving wall>>

2004 Image: 4 cm displacement, light from side>>


Folds

Anticline & syncline>>
Syncline>>
Chevron folds>>
Inclined anticline (chevron fold)>>
Inclined synform>>
Vertical folds>>
Plunging folds>>
Isoclinal fold>>
Recumbent chevron folds>>
Recumbent fold in gneiss>>
Anticline with saddle reef>>
Harmonic folds>>
Polyharmonic folds>>
Parasitic folds>>
Disharmonic folds>>
Sheath folds>>
Kink bands>>
Kink band 2>>
Monocline>>
Fault-propagation fold (normal fault)>>
Fault-propagation fold (thrust fault)>>
Fault-bend fold>>
Parallel fold>>
Similar fold in quartzite>>
Similar folds in gypsum>>
Ptygmatic folds>>
Refolded folds>>
Type 1 refolded folds>>
Type 2 refolded folds>>
Type 3 refolded fold>>

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Strain

Deformed reduction spots>>
Deformed ooid and pressure shadow>>
Deformed mudcracks>>
Deformed conglomerate>>
Deformed quartzite>>
Deformed footprints>>
Deformed trilobite>>
Deformed belemnite>>
Curved vein fibers>>
Boudinaged dike>>
Folded boudins>>
Folded boudins 2>>

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Experimental Modeling: Shortening & Strain

2007 Movie: Shortening & Strain (low-resolution)>>

2007 Movie: Shortening & Strain (hi-resolution)>>

2007 Image: 8 cm displacement, light from fixed wall>>

2007 Image: 8 cm displacement, light from moving wall>>

2007 Image: 8 cm displacement, light from both walls>>

2005 Movie: Shortening & Strain>>

2005 Image: 8 cm displacement, light from fixed wall>>

2005 Image: 8 cm displacement, light from moving wall>>

2005 Image: 8 cm displacement, strain ellipses labeled>>


Foliations and lineations

Axial planar cleavage>>
Cleavage fans>>
Cleavage fans 2>>
Transected cleavage>>
Slaty cleavage>>
Foliation (thin section)>>
Cleavage refraction>>
Cleavage spacing and lithology>>
Crenulation cleavage>>
Thin section of symmetric crenulation cleavage>>
Thin section of asymmetric crenulation cleavage>>
Pressure solution cleavage>>
Pressure solution cleavage 2>>
Pressure solution cleavage 3>>
Stylolites>>
Deformed oolite>>
Fold-hinge lineations>>
Cleavage-bedding-fold relationships>>
Pencil structures>>
Mullions>>
Experimental boudins>>
Pinch-and-swell structures>>
Boudinaged dike>>
Boudins and pinch-and-swell structures>>

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Shear zones and kinematic indicators

Ductile shear zone>>
Ductile shear zone with foliation>>
Dextral ductile shear zone with deflected marker>>
Sinistral ductile shear zone with deflected marker>>
Mylonite>>
Thin section of mylonite>>
Sigmoidal foliation>>
S-C fabric in mylonite>>

Delta-type porphyroclast tails>>
Sigma-type porphyroclast tails>>
Sigma-type porphyroclast tails 2>>
Fractured clast>>
Folds in ductile shear zone>>
Dextral brittle-ductile shear zone>>
Dextral en echelon array with sigmoidal veins>>
Sinistral brittle-ductile shear zone>>
Multiple sets of brittle-ductile shear zones>>

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Joints and veins

Joint-controlled weathering>>
Fluid-flow and jointing 1>>
Fluid-flow and jointing 2>>
Fluid-flow and jointing 3>>
Joint sets>>
Joint sets 2>>
Orthogonal joint system>>
Columnar joints>>
Devils Tower joints>>
Exfoliation joints>>
Plumose marking>>
Plumose marking and joint origin>>
Border fractures>>
Conchoidal steps>>
Joint spacing vs. lithology>>
Joint orientation and lithology>>
Syntaxial calcite vein>>
Antitaxial calcite vein>>
En echelon vein array>>
Sigmoidal vein array>>
Sediment-filled fissures>>

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Extensional tectonics

Clay model: distributed extension>>
Clay model: basement-involved normal faulting>>
Small relay ramp>>
Detached normal faults>>
Growth faults>>
Talus slope deposits>>
Border fault conglomerate>>
Domino-style normal faults>>
Low-angle normal fault>>
Red Sea>>
Basin and Range>>
Normal fault scarp>>
Footwall uplift mountains (Tetons)>>
Icelandic rift valley>>
Icelandic normal fault scarps>>

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Salt tectonics

Diapir>>
Gulf of Mexico salt structures>>

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Experimental Modeling: Strike Slip

Movie: Strike-slip & Strain>>

Image: 4 cm displacement, light from right>>

Strike-slip and oblique-slip tectonics

Clay model: basement-involved strike-slip faulting>>
San Andreas fault>>
Offset streams along strike-slip fault>>
Sinistral strike-slip faulting>>
Sinistral strike-slip faulting 2>>
Dextral strike-slip faulting>>
Dextral strike-slip faulting 2>>
Dextral strike-slip faulting 3>>
Dextral strike-slip faulting 4>>
Pressure ridge adjacent to strike-slip fault>>
Tear fault>>
Oblique-slip fault scarp>>
Oblique-slip fault scarp 2>>
Clay model: basement-involved oblique-normal faulting>>
Clay model: oblique relay ramps>>

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Compressional tectonics

Thrust fault>>
Thrust fault 2>>
Thrust fault scarp>>
Thrust with ramp-flat geometry>>
Ramp-flat structure>>
Imbricate reverse faults>>
Duplex>>
Fault-bend fold>>
Fault-bend fold 2>>
Fault-propagation fold>>
Detachment folds>>
Clay model: basement-involved shortening>>
Clay model: basin inversion>>
Wyoming fold-and-thrust belt: Sheep Mtn. anticline>>
Valley & Ridge province
Taconic unconformity>>

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Primary structures, contacts, and other structures

Horizontal bedding>>
Inclined bedding, meaning of strike & dip>>
Apparent dip>>
Vertical beds>>
Cross bedding>>
Channel and fining-upward succession>>
Mudcrack in cross section>>
Pahoehoe lava with flow folding>>
Pillow lava>>
Cooling columns in basalt>>
Dike>>
Intersecting dikes>>
Shiprock dikes>>
Angular unconformity, Siccar Point>>
Angular unconformity, Grand Canyon>>
Onlap unconformity, Tennycape>>
Meteor Crater>>
Impact crater>>
Shatter cone>>
Timing relationships>>
Dike & cross-cutting relationship>>
Synsedimentary thrust fault>>
Synsedimentary normal faults>>

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slides.html -- Revised: 8 March 2007