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Shors T.J. Saving new brain cells. Scientific American, March Issue 2009.
Dalla C., Papachristos E., Whetstone A.S., Shors T.J. Females learn trace memories better than males, thereby preserving more neurons in their hippocampus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Early edition, February, 2009.
Bangasser D.A. Shors T.J. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) modulates learning after stress in masculinized but not cycling females Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 5290-5294, 2008.
Waddell J., Bangasser D.A., Shors T.J. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala is necessary to induce the opposing effects of stressful experience on learning in males and females. Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 5290-5294, 2008.
Waddell J., Shors T.J. Neurogenesis, learning and associative strength, European Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 5290-5294, 2008.
Shors T.J. From stem cells to grandmother cells: How neurogenesis relates to processes of learning and memory. Cell Stem Cell, 3, 253-258, 2008.
Bangasser D.A., Shors T.J. The hippocampus is necessary for enhancements and decrements in learning after a stressful experience. Nature Neuroscience, 10, 1401-1403, 2007.
Dalla C., Bangasser D., Edgecomb C., Shors T.J. Neurogenesis and learning: acquisition and asymptotic performance predict how many new neurons survive after training. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 88, 143-148, 2007.
Sisti H., Glass, A., Shors T.J. Neurogenesis and the spacing effect: Trials distributed over time enhance memory and predict cell survival. Learning and Memory, 14(5):368-75, 2007.
Shors T.J., Mathew J., Edgecomb C., Sisti H., Beckoff S., Dalla C. Neurogenesis is mediated by learned helplessness in males but not females. Biological Psychiatry, 62(5):487-95, 2007.
T.J. Significant life events and the shape of memories
to come: a hypothesis. Neurobiology of Learning
and Memory, 85 (2006) 103–115, 2005.
Bangasser D.A., Waxler D.E., Santollo J., Shors T.J.
Trace conditioning and the hippocampus
: the importance of contiguity. Journal
Hodes G., Shors, T.J. Learning during middle age:
a resistance to stress? Neurobiology
In press, 2006.
Shors T.J., Mathew J., Edgecomb C., Sisti H., Beckoff
S., Dalla C.
Learned helplessness modulates neurogenesis in males but not females.
Biological Psychiatry, In press 2006.
B., Waddell J., Gould E., Shors T.J. Temporal discontiguity
is neither necessary nor sufficient for learning effects
Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 13437-13442, 2006.
B., Shors T. J. Learning during motherhood:
a resistance to stress.
Hormones and Behavior, 50, 38-51, 2006
D.P., Kosik, K.S., Shors, T.J. Growth hormone
is produced within the hippocampus
where it responds to age, sex, and stress,
PNAS 103(15):6031-6036, 2006.
B., Gould E., Shors T.J. Is there a link
between neurogenesis and learning? Hippocampus, 16:216–224,
D.A. and Shors T.J. The bed nucleus of the stria
terminalis is necessary for the persistent enhancement
of learning after stress. Behavioral
Neuroscience, 119(6):1459–1466, 2005.
Leuner B., and Shors T. J. Motherhood and memory:
a resistance to stress. Hormones and Behavior, In
T.J. Stressful experience and learning across
the lifespan. Annual
Review of Psychology, 57:55–85, 2006.
Shors T.J. Estrogen and learning: strategy over parsimony. Learning
and Memory, 12, 84-85, 2005.
G.E., Shors T.J. Distinctive stress effects on
learning during puberty. Hormones and Behavior,
48 (2005) 163 – 171, 2005.
Foy M.R., Kim J.J., Shors T.J., Thompson R.F. Neurobiological
foundations of stress. In Nutrients, Stress and
Medical Disorders (ed. Yehuda and Mostofsky), Humana
Leuner B., Mendolia S., Kozorovitskiy Y., Samburg D.,
Gould E., Shors T.J. Learning Enhances the Survival
of New Neurons beyond the Time when the Hippocampus
Is Required for Memory. The Journal of Neuroscience,
B., Mendolia S., Shors T.J. Males and females respond
differently to controllability and antidepressant treatment.
Biological Psychiatry, 56,
Shors T.J. Memory traces of trace memories: neurogenesis,
synaptogenesis and awareness. Trends in Neuroscience,
27, 250-256, 2004.
Shors T.J. Learning during stressful times.
Learning and Memory, 11,
Shors T.J., Falduto J., Leuner B. Opposite effects of
stress and sex differences in dendritic spines are dependent
on NMDA receptor activation. European Journal of
Neuroscience, 19, 145-150, 2004.
Leuner B., Mendolia S., Shors T.J. High levels of estrogen
associative learning in the female rat. Psychoneuroendocrinology,
Leuner B., Shors T.J. New spines, new memories. Molecular
In press, 2004.
Bangasser D. and Shors T.J. Stressful experience impairs
conditioning the females without altering the unconditioned
Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, In press, 2004.
Shors T.J. Can new neurons replace memories lost?
Science of Aging
Knowledge Environment, 2003, 49, 35-38, 2003.
Alder J., Thakker-Varia S., Bangasser D.A., Kuroiwa
M., Plummer M.R.,
Shors T.J., Black I.B. BDNF-induced gene expression
actions of VGF in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Journal
Neuroscience, 23, 10800-10808, 2003.
Leuner B., Mendolia S., Shors T.J. Serotonergic antidepressants
protect females from the adverse effects of acute stressful
experience on learning. Submitted, 2003.
Beylin A., Shors T.J. Glucocorticoids are necessary
for enhancing memory formation after acute stressful
experience. Hormones and Behavior, 43, 124-131,
Shors T.J., Leuner B. Estrogen-mediated effects
on affect and memory formation. Journal of Affective
Disorders, 74, 85-96, 2003.
B., Falduto J., Shors, T.J. Associative memory formation
increases the observation of dendritic spines in the
hippocampus. Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 659-665,
Shors T.J. Stress and memory. In Learning and Memory
(Ed. JH Byrne) Macmillan, New York, p. 641-3, 2003.
T.J., Townsend D.A., Zhao M., Kozorovitskiy Y., Gould
E. Neurogenesis may relate to some by not all types
of hippocampal-dependent learning. Hippocampus,
12, 578-584, 2002.
T.J., Miesegeas G. Testosterone in utero and at birth
dictates how stressful experience will affect learning
in adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy
of Sciences, 99, 21, 13955-13960, 2002.
Donahue C., Jensen R., Ochiishi T., Eisenstein
I., Zhao M., Shors T., Kosik KS. Transcriptional profiling
reveals genes that are expressed in the hippocampus
during memory formation. Hippocampus, 12, 821-833,
T.J. Opposite effects of stressful experience on memory
in males versus females. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience,
4, 139-148, 2002.
Shors T.J., Chua C., Falduto, J. Sex differences
and opposing effects of stress on the density of dendritic
spines in the male versus female hippocampus. Journal
of Neuroscience, 21, 6292-6297, 2001.
T.J., Miesegeas G., Beylin A., Zhao M., Riedel T., Gould
E. Neurogenesis in the adult is involved in the formation
of trace memories. Nature, 410, 372-376, 2001.
A., Gandhi C., Talk A., Zhao M., Matzel L.D., Shors
T.J. The role of the hippocampus in trace conditioning:
temporal incongruity or task difficulty? Neurobiology
of Learning and Memory, 76, 447-461, 2001.
Wood G.E., Beylin A., and Shors T.J. The contribution
of adrenal and reproductive hormones to the opposing
effects of stress on trace conditioning in males versus
females. Behavioral Neuroscience, 115, 175-187,
Shors T.J. Inescapable stress rapidly induces
and persistently enhances memory formation in the male
rat. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 75,
Matzel L.D., Shors T.J. Long-term potentiation and
associative learning: Can the mechanism subserve the
process? In Neuronal Mechanisms of Memory Formation
(Ed. C. Holscher), Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Shors T.J. The modulation of memory formation by stressful
experience and sex differences in the brain. In Model
Systems and the Neurobiology of Associative Learning
(Eds. Steinmetz, Gluck and Solomon), Lawrence Erlbaum
Shors T.J., Horvath B. The neural basis of stress.
In the International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral
Sciences (Eds. Smelser and Baltes), Pergamon, 2000.
Shors T.J., Beylin A., Gould E. The modulation of Pavlovian
memory. Behavioral Brain Research, 110, 39-52,
Shors T.J., Matzel L.D. The status of LTP as mechanism
of memory formation in the mammalian brain. Behavioral
and Brain Sciences. 23, 283-298, 2000.
Burrows R.C., Levitt P. and Shors T.J. Reduced late-onset
TGFa in the hypomorphic mouse, Waved-1 is associated
with reduced amygdaloid vasculature and amygdaloid-dependent
fear conditioning. Neuroscience, 96, 825-836,
Shors T.J. Acute stress and reexposure to the stressful
context suppress unit activity in the basolateral nucleus
of the amygdala via NMDA receptor activation. Neuroreport,
10, 2811-2815, 1999.
Shors T.J., Pickett J., Paczynski M., Wood G.E. Acute
stress persistently enhances estrogen in the female
rat. Stress, 3, 163-171, 1999.
Shors T.J. Long-Term Potentiation. Entry in MIT Encyclopedia
of Cognitive Sciences. (Wilson and Keil, Eds.) MIT Press,
In press, 2000.
Gould E., Tanapat T., Hastings N.B. and Shors T.J.
Neurogenesis in adulthood: a possible role in learning.
Trends in Cognitive Neurosciences, 3: 186-192,
Gould E., Beylin A., Tanapat P., Reeves A., and
Shors T.J. Learning enhances adult neurogenesis in the
hippocampal region. Nature Neuroscience, 2,
Beylin A. and Shors T.J. Stress facilitates excitatory
trace eyeblink conditioning and opposes acquisition
of inhibitory conditioning. Behavioral Neuroscience,
112, 1327-1338 1998.
Shors T.J., Mathew P.R. NMDA receptor antagonism in
the basolateral, but not central nucleus, of the amygdala
prevents the induction of facilitated learning in response
to stress. Cold Spring Harbor Journal of Learning
and Memory, 5, 220-230, 1998.
Wood G.E. and Shors T.J. Stress enhances associative
learning in males, but impairs associative learning
in females through activational effects of ovarian hormones.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
(PNAS) 95, 4066-4071, 1998.
Shors T.J., Lewczyk C. Mathew, P., Paczynski, M. and
Pickett J. Stages of estrous mediate the stress-induced
impairment of classical conditioning in females. Neuroreport
9, 419-423, 1998.
Shors T.J. Sex and stress effects on learning and memory:
For better or for worse. The Neuroscientist
4, 353-364, 1998.
Shors T.J. and Matzel L.D. Long-term potentiation (LTP):
what's learning got to do with it? Behavioral and
Brain Sciences (target article and commentaries),
20 (4), 597-655, 1997.