Rutgers New Brunswick/Piscataway Campus
Lena Struwe's Publications (selected)


Albert, V. A. & L. Struwe. 1997. Phylogeny and classification of Voyria (saprophytic Gentianaceae). Brittonia 49: 466-479.

Bremer, B. & L. Struwe. 1992. Phylogeny of the Rubiaceae and the Loganiaceae: congruence or conflict between morphological and molecular data? American Journal of Botany 79 (10): 1171-1184.

Bremer, B., R. G. Olmstead, L. Struwe, & J. A. Sweere. 1994. rbcL sequences support exclusion of Retzia, Desfontainia, and Nicodemia from the Gentianales. Plant Systematics and Evolution 190: 213-230.

Calió, M. F., J. Pirani, & L. Struwe. 2008. Morphology-based phylogeny and revision of Prepusa and Senaea (Gentianaceae: Helieae) - rare endemics from eastern Brazil. Kew Bulletin 63: 169-191.

Frasier, C., V. A. Albert, & L. Struwe. 2008. Amazonian lowland, white sand areas as ancestral regions for South American biodiversity: biogeographic and phylogenetic patterns in Potalia (Gentianaceae). Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 8: 44-57.

Gould, K. R. & L. Struwe. 2004. Phylogeny and evolution of Symbolanthus and Wurdackanthus (Gentianaceae-Helieae) in the Guayana Highlands and Andes, based on ribosomal 5S-NTS sequences. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 91: 438-446.

Mansion, G. & L. Struwe. 2004. Generic delimitation and phylogenetic relationships within the subtribe Chironiinae (Chironieae: Gentianaceae) with special reference to Centaurium: evidence from nrDNA and cpDNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 951-977.

Molina, J. & L. Struwe. 2008. Revision of ring-gentians (Symbolanthus, Gentianaceae) from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru, with a first assessment of conservation status. Systematics & Biodiversity 6: 477-501.

Molina, J., & L. Struwe. 2009. Utility of secondary structure in phylogenetic reconstructions using nrDNA ITS sequences - an example from Potalieae (Gentianaceae: Asteridae). Systematic Botany 34: 414-428. doi: 10.1600/036364409788606424

Struwe, L. 2001. Gentianales. In: Encyclopedia of Life Science, MacMillan Publishers. [on-line encyclopedia]

Struwe, L. & V. A. Albert. 1997. Floristics, cladistics, and classification: three case studies in Gentianales. In: Plant Diversity in Malesia III, J. Dransfield, M. J. E. Coode, & D. A. Simpson (eds.), pp. 321-352. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [conference proceedings]

Struwe, L. & V. A. Albert, eds. 2002. Gentianaceae – Systematics and Natural History. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 652 pp.  Chapters:

  • Prance, G. Foreword.
  • Albert, V. A. and L. Struwe. Gentianaceae in context. Pp. 1-20.
  • Struwe, L., J. Kadereit, J. Klackenberg, S. Nilsson, M. Thiv, K. B. von Hagen, and V. A. Albert.   
  • Systematics, character evolution, and biogeography of Gentianaceae, including a new tribal and subtribal classification. Pp. 21-309.
  • Meszáros, S., J. DeLaet, V. Goethals, E. Smets, and S. Nilsson. Cladistics of the Gentianaceae: a morphological approach. Pp. 310-376.
  • Nilsson, S. Gentianaceae – a review of palynology. Pp. 377-497.
  • Bouman, F., L. Cobb, N. Devente, V. Goethals, and E. Smets. The seeds of Gentianaceae. Pp. 498-572.
  • Jensen, S. R. and J. Shripsema. Chemotaxonomy and pharmacology of Gentianaceae. Pp. 573-632.

Struwe, L., P. E. Smouse, E. Heiberg, S. Haag, & R. G. Lathrop.  2011. Spatial evolutionary and ecological vicariance analysis (SEEVA), a novel approach to biogeography and speciation research, with an example from Brazilian Gentianaceae. Journal of Biogeography 38: 1841–1854. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02532.x

Thiv, M., L. Struwe, V. A. Albert, & J. W. Kadereit. 1999. The phylogenetic relationships of Saccifolium bandeirae Maguire & Pires (Gentianaceae) reconsidered. Harvard Papers in Botany 4: 519-526.

Thiv, M., L. Struwe, & J. W. Kadereit. 1999 [2000]. The phylogenetic relationships and evolution of the Canarian laurel forest endemic Ixanthus viscosus (Alt.) Griseb. (Gentianaceae): evidence from matK and ITS sequence variation, and floral morphology and anatomy. Pl. Syst. Evol. 218: 299-317.


Eisenman, S. W., A. O. Tucker, & L. Struwe. 2012. Voucher specimens are essential for documenting source material used in medicinal plant investigations. Journal of Medicinally Active Plants 1(1):30-43. Available here for download.

Eisenman, S.W. & L. Struwe. 2011. The global distribution of wild tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.; Asteraceae) cytotypes with twenty-seven new records from North America. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 58: 1199-1212. doi: 10.1007/s10722-010-9653-6

Eisenman, E., D. Zaurov, & L. Struwe (eds.). In press, Sep 2012. Medicinal Plants of Central Asia: Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. Springer Verlag.

Eisenman, S.W., A. Poulev, L. Struwe, I. Raskin, and D.M. Ribnicky. 2011.  Qualitative variation of anti-diabetic compounds in different tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) cytotypes. Fitoterapia 82(7): 1062-1074. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2011.07.003

Kellogg, J., G. Joseph, K. Andrae-Marobela, A. Sosome, C.G. Flint, S. Komarnytsky, G. Fear, L. Struwe, I. Raskin, & M. Lila. 2010. Screens-to-nature: opening doors to traditional knowledge and hands-on science education. NACTA Journal Sept 2010: 41-48.

Pohlit, A. M., E. V. M. dos Santos, T. C. M. da Silva, S. K. R. de Morais, S. M. Nunomura, L. Struwe. 2012. A rare secoiridoid monoterpene and a xanthone from Tachia grandiflora Maguire & Weaver. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 44: 267-269,


Mathews, K. G., N. Dunne, E. York, & L. Struwe. 2009. A phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision of Bartonia (Gentianaceae-Gentianeae), based on molecular and morphological evidence. Systematic Botany 34: 162-172.

Novy, A., P. E. Smouse, J. M. Hartman, L. Struwe, J. Honig, C. Miller, M. Alvarez & S. Bonos. 2010. Genetic variation of Spartina alterniflora in the New York Metropolitan area and its relevance for marsh restoration. Wetlands 30: 603-608.


Grant, J. R. & L. Struwe. 2001. Macrocarpaeae Grisebach (Gentianaceae) Species Novae seu notabiles Neotropicae I: An introduction to the genus Macrocarpaea and three new species from Colombia, Ecuador, and Guyana. Harvard Papers in Botany 5: 489-498.

Grant, J. R. & L. Struwe. 2003. De Macrocarpaeae Grisebach (ex Gentianaceis) speciebus novis III: Six new species of moon-gentians (Macrocarpaea, Gentianaceae: Helieae) from Parque Nacional Podocarpus, Ecuador. Harvard Papers in Botany 8 (1): 61-81.

Grant, J. R., P. J. M. Maas, & L. Struwe. 2006. Yanomamua araca (Gentianaceae: Helieae), a new genus and species from outliers of the Guayana Shield on Serra Aracá in Amazonian Brazil. Harvard Papers in Botany 11(1): 33-41.

Lepis, K. B., P. J. M. Maas, & L. Struwe. 2011. A new species of Sipapoantha from northern Brazil (Gentianaceae: Helieae). Blumea - Biodiversity, Evolution and Biogeography of Plants 56: 28-32.

Molina, J. & L. Struwe. 2004. Neuburgia novocaledonica, comb. nov. and the first record of domatia in the family Loganiaceae. Australian Systematic Botany 17: 399-406.

Popovkin, A. V., K. G. Mathews, J. C. Mendes Santos, M. C. Molina, & L. Struwe . 2011. Spigelia genuflexa (Loganiaceae), a new geocarpic species from the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, Brazil. PhytoKeys 6: 47–56, doi: 10.3897/phytokeys.6.1654

Struwe, L. 2003. Revision of Bolivian Symbolanthus (Gentianaceae – Helieae). Harvard Papers in Botany 8 (1): 19-24.

Struwe, L. 2003. Two new winged species of Symbolanthus (Gentianaceae: Helieae) from Colombia. Novon 13: 133-140.

Struwe, L. & V. A. Albert. 2004. Monograph of neotropical Potalia (Gentianaceae: Potalieae). Systematic Botany 29(3): 670-701.

Struwe, L., V. A. Albert, & B. Bremer. 1994 [1995]. Cladistics and family level classification of the Gentianales. Cladistics 10: 175-206.

Struwe, L. & V. A. Albert. 1998. Six new species of Gentianaceae from the Guayana Shield. Harvard Papers in Botany 3: 181-197.

Struwe, L. & K. Gould. 2004. Redefinition of Symbolanthus to include Wurdackanthus (Gentianaceae - Helieae). Novon 14: 354-359.

Struwe, L., M. P. Kinkade, & P. J. M. Maas. 2005. Two new Brazilian species of Tachia (Gentianaceae: Helieae). Blumea 50: 457-462.

Struwe, L., P. J. M. Maas, & V. A. Albert. 1997. Aripuana cullmaniorum, a new genus and species of Gentianaceae from white sands of southeastern Amazonas, Brazil. Harvard Papers in Botany 2: 235-253.


Maas, P. J. M, L. Struwe, & B. von Hagen. 2008. Gentianaceae. Pages 403-408. In: O. Hokche, P. Berry, & O. Huber (eds.), Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela.  Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela Dr. Tobias Lasser.

Struwe, L. 2004. Columelliaceae, Desfontainiaceae, Loganiaceae, Plocospermataceae. Pages 108-109, 126-127, 219-221, 299-300. In: Flowering Plant Families of the American Tropics (A. Henderson, S. A. Mori, S. V. Heald, N. P. Smith, and D. W. Stevenson, eds.), Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Struwe, L. & V. A. Albert. 2004. Gelsemiaceae, Gentianaceae. Pages 164-166, 166-168. In: Flowering Plant Families of the American Tropics (A. Henderson, S. A. Mori, S. V. Heald, N. P. Smith, and D. W. Stevenson, eds.), Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Struwe, L., J. R. Grant, K. B. Lepis, M. F. Calió, M. Zarate, & J. Pringle. 2009. Gentianaceae. In: Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Bolivia (P.M. Jřrgensen, ed.). Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis. (Published online 2009, , printed version in press)

Struwe, L., P. J. M. Maas, O. Pihlar, & V. A. Albert. 1999. Gentianaceae. Pages 474-542. In: Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, vol. 5, P. E. Berry, K. Yatskievych, & B. K. Holst (eds.). Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.

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