Laboratory 5: Appendicular and Fetal Skeletons

Exercises: 11 and 12

 

Exercise 11and 12

In Exercise 11 we continue to study individual bones and bone markings, focusing on the bones of the pectoral and pelvic girdles and limbs.

 

Exercise 12 presents the anatomy of the fetal skull, which differs from the adult skull primarily in the presence of several fontanels or “soft spots” between cranial bones. 

A. Fontanels: fibrous membranes that gradually ossify with age

1. Allow for growth of the fetal brain

2. Permit the fetal skull to withstand mild compression during birth

 

Work through the labs, using the bones provided and figures in your lab manual to identify bones, bone markings, and fontanels.

 

B. The following is a list of bones you must know.  If the bone is followed by an asterisk (*), you must be able to discern the left bone from the right bone on a practical exam.

 

Scapula*

Clavicle*

Humerus*

Radius*

Ulna*

Carpals

Metacarpals

Phalanges

Ossa coxal* (ishium, ilium, pubis)

Pelvis (ossa coxae, sacrum, coccyx)

Femur*

Tibia

Fibula

Tarsals

Metatarsals

Phalanges. 

 

We have limited the number of bone markings that you are required to know.  Below is a list of figures and terms that you DO NO NEED TO KNOW, and you may want to draw a line through them in your lab manual.

 

You are responsible for all terms not explicitly stated here:

Fig. 11.4: interosseous membrane

 

Fig. 11.5: You do not need to identify individual carpals, metqacarpals, or phalanges. Know that each hand consists of 8 carpals, 5 metacarpals, and 14 phalanges (proximal, middle, and distal). 

 

Fig. 11.6 (b): tubercle of iliac crest, anterior gluteal line, posterior gluteal line, posterior superior iliac spine, posterior inferior iliac spine, inferior gluteal line, anterior superior iliac spine, anterior inferior iliac spine

 

Fig. 11.6 (c): anterior superior iliac spine, anterior inferior iliac spine, posterior superior iliac spine, posterior inferior iliac spine, pubic tubercle

 

Fig. 11.7: (a) Be able to identify the patella, however you do not need to know any of its bone markings. 

 

Fig. 11.8: (a) intercondylar eminence, interosseous membrane, articular surface of medial malleolus. (b) articular surface of medial condyle, articular surface of lateral condyle. 

 

Fig. 11.9: (a) You do not need to identify individual tarsals, metatarsals, or phalanges. Know that each foot consists of 7 tarsals, 5 metatarsals, and 14 phalanges (proximal, middle, and distal). (b) You do not need to know the three arches of the foot.