Anatomy and Physiology

Exam I Review Material


Anatomical Organization


1.         Know the hierarchy of organization: chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organismal


2.         Be able to identify and describe the necessary life functions

                        a.         Boundaries

                        b.         Movement

                        c.         Responsiveness

                        d.         Digestion

                        e.         Metabolism

                        f.          Excretion

                        g.         Reproduction

                        h.         Growth


2.         Be able to identify and describe homeostasis

                        a.         Positive and negative feedback


3.         Know the definitions of all anatomical terms described in class and posted on the course website (see announcements)


4.         Know the body planes


5.         Know the body cavities

            a.         Cranial

            b.         Vertebral

            c.         Thoracic

                        i.          Pleural

            d.         Mediastinum

                        i.          Pericardial

            e.         Abdominopelvic

                        i.          Abdominal

                        ii.         Pelvic


6.         Be able to identify and describe the components of serosa membranes


Cellular Biology


1.         Know the structure of the generalized cell


2.         Know the fluid-mosaic model of the plasma membrane

            a.         Phospholipid bilayer

            b.         Integral and peripheral proteins


3.         For membranes, know:

            a.         Functions

            b.         Types of cellular connections


4.         Know the different types of membrane transport

            a.         Diffusion

                        i.          Simple

                        ii.         Osmosis

                        iii.        Facilitated

            b.         Filtration

            c.         Active transport

            d.         Bulk transport

                        i.          Exocytosis

                        ii.         Endocytosis


5.         Know the different types of endocytosis


6.         Be able to describe the basic function of cytoplasmic organelles

            a.         Mitochondria

            b.         Ribosomes

            c.         Endoplasmic reticulum

            d.         Golgi apparatus

            e.         Lysosomes


7.         Be able to describe the endomembrane system


8.         Know the structure and function of the nucleus

            a.         Envelope

            b.         Chromatin


9.         Know the two periods of the cell cycle

            a.         Interphase

            b.         Mitosis (meiosis)


10.       Know the subphases of interphase and the events occurring in each


11.       Know the phases of mitosis and the events occurring in each

            a.         Prophase

            b.         Metaphase

            c.         Anaphase

            d.         Telophase

            e.         Cytokinesis


12.       Be able to describe the chromosomal and DNA makeup during each phase of mitosis


13.       Be able to describe the two nuclear divisions that occur during meiosis

            a.         Know the events that occur during each

            b.         Know the chromosomal and DNA makeup during each phase


14.       For cancer, know:

            a.         Definitions of neoplasia, dystrophy and dysplasia

            b.         Types of dysplasia

                        i.          Aplasia

                        ii.         Hyperplasia

            c.         Difference between benign and malignant tumors

            d.         Difference between carcinomas and sarcomas


15.       Know the risk factors that contribute to the epidemiology of cancer


16.       Know the etiology of cancer—neoplastic transformation.


Epithelial Tissue


1.         For each type of tissue, know:

            a.         Functions

            b.         Cell types

            c.         Fibers

            d.         Fluids


2.         Know the basic characteristics of epithelial tissue

            a.         Cellularity: close-packed cells with limited extracellular material

            b.         Cellular connections

                        i.          Tight junctions

                        ii.         Desmosomes

            c.         Cellular organization

                        i.          Apical surface in contact with fluid or air

                        ii.         Basal cell layer in contact with basement membrane (lamina)

            d.         Connective tissue support

                        i.          All epithelial sheets are supported by connective tissue

ii.         Deep to the basement lamina is a layer of connective tissue—reticular lamina

iii.        Basement lamina + reticular lamina = basement membrane

            e.         Innervated—receives nervous innervation

            f.          Avascular—contains no blood vessels

            g.         Highly regenerative

                        i.          Cells are replaced rapidly by cell division

                        ii.         Cell loss due to friction and contact with hostile environments

3.         For each subtype of epithelial tissue, know the number of cell layers, cell and nuclear shape, functions, locations, and any unique modifications

            a.         Simple

                        i.          Squamous

                        ii.         Cuboidal

                        iii.        Columnar

            b.         Pseudostratified columnar

            c.         Stratified

                        i.          Squamous

                        ii.         Cuboidal

                        iii.        Columnar

                        iv.        Transitional


Glandular Epithelial Tissue


1.         Know the classification of glandular epithelia


2.         Know what glands and secretions are

            a.         Exocrine verses endocrine

            b.         Multicellular verses unicellular


3.         Know the structure of ducts

            a.         Simple

                        i.          Single unbranched duct

            b.         Compound

                        i.          Branched duct


4.         Know the structure of secretory elements

a.         Tubular

                        i.          Secretory cells form a tube

            b.         Alveolar

                        i.          Secretory cells form a flask-like sac

            c.         Tubuloalveolar

                        i.          Contain both


5.         Know the classification of glands based on how product is secreted

            a.         Merocrine glands

                        i.          Secrete via exocytosis without altering secretory cell

            b.         Holocrine glands

i.          Accumulate products until cell bursts, releasing secretory products, then dies

            c.         Apocine glands

                        i.          Accumulate products just beneath free surface

                        ii.         Top of cell is removed and products are released

                        iii.        Cell is repaired