Anatomy and Physiology

Exam II Review Material


Connective Tissue


1.         Know the functions of connective tissue


2.         Know the common characteristics that are shared by all connective tissue

a.         Origin—all connective arise from mesenchyme

            b.         Vascularity varies based on type

            c.         Extracellular matrix

            d.         Ground substance

            e.         Fibers

                        i.          Collagen fibers—made from collagen; strong, high tensile strength

ii.         Elastic fibers—made from elastin; stretches and recoils to bring tissue back to normal shape

iii.        Reticular fibers—collagenous; branched and form networks; surround small blood vessels and support tissue of organs

f.          Cells—blasts and cytes


3.         For each type of connective tissue, know the functions, locations, type of cells, fibers, matrix composition, and any unique modifications

a.         Loose connective tissue

                        i.          Areolar

                        ii.         Adipose

                        iii.        Reticular

            b.         Dense connective tissue

                        i.          Dense regular

                        ii.         Dense irregular

                        iii.        Elastic

            c.         Mesenchyme

            d.         Cartilage

                        i.          Hyaline

                        ii.         Elastic

                        iii.        Fibrocartilage

            e.         Bone

            f.          Blood


Integumentary System


1.         Know the basic characteristics of the three regions of the skin

            a.         Epidermis

            b.         Dermis

            c.         Hypodermis


2.         For each cell type found in the epidermis, know the functions, locations and any unique modifications

            a.         Keratinocytes

            b.         Melanocytes

            c.         Merkel cells

            d.         Langerhan’s cells


3.         For each epidermal layer, know number of cell layers, cells present, function, and any unique modifications

a.         Stratum basale (stratum germinativum)—deepest layer

                        i.          Single layer of mitotically active cells

                        ii.         Give rise to keratinocytes (youngest)

                        iii.        Includes melanocytes and some Merkel cells

b.         Stratum spinosum (Prickly layer)—weblike network of cells formed by intermediate filaments attached to desmosomes

            i.          Comprised of keratinocytes

            ii.         Includes melanin granules and Langerhans cells

            c.         Stratum granulosum—thick; 3-5 cell layers; keratinocytes are modified

                        i.          Flattened; nuclei and organelles lost

                        ii.         Keratohylaline and lamellated granules accumulate

iii.        Lamellated granules are glycoproteins, released into extracellular space, that reduce water loss

iv.        Cells more resistant to destruction

d.         Stratum lucidum—a few rows of clear, flattened, dead keratinocytes; layer occurs only in thick skin

i.          Keratohyalin granules—gummy substance associated with keratin filaments

ii.         Cells aggregate in parallel arrays

            e. Stratum corneum (Horny layer)—outer most layer; most of epidermis thickness

                        i.          20-30 cell layers thick

ii.         Keratin, thickened plasma membranes and glycoproteins protect against abrasion and loss of water

iii.        Cornified or horny cells—remnants of cells from this layer


4.         For the dermal layer, know its structure, cells present, nervous and vascular supply, and any unique modifications


5.         Know the factors that contribute to skin color


6.         Know the different types of skin appendages


7.         Know the different types of sweat glands

a.         Eccrine

                        i.          Coiled, tubular

                        ii.         Palms, soles of feet

                        iii.        Duct opens to pore on surface

                        iv.        Hypotonic secretion

                        v.         Regulated by sympathetic NS

                                    a.         Involuntary

            b.         Apocrine

                        i.          Large; ducts empty into hair follicle

                        ii.         Axillary and anogenital areas

                        iii.        Interaction with skin bacteria results in odor

            c.         Ceruminous—modified apocrine

                        i.          Ear canal; cerumen (wax)

            d.         Mammary—produce milk


8.         Know the basic characteristics of sebaceous glands


9.         Know the basic functions of the integumentary system

            a.         Protection

b.         Body temperature regulation

c.         Sensation

d.         Metabolism

e.         Excretion

f.          Blood reservoir


 Skeletal Tissue


1.         Be able to classify bone based on type and shape

            a.         Type

i.          Spongy

ii.         Compact

            b.         Shape

                        i.          Long bone

                        ii.         Short bone

                        iii.        Flat bone

                        iv.        Irregular bone


2.         Know the gross anatomy of long and flat bones

            a.         Diaphysis: shaft; long axis

            b.         Epiphysis: bone ends

            c.         Membranes

                        i.          Periosteum

                        ii.         Endosteum


3.         Know the structure of an osteon

            a.         Concentric rings: lamella

b.         Central (Haversian) canal: core of osteon

            c.         Perpendicular canals (perforating or Volkmanns)

            d.         Lacunae: cavities containing osteocytes

            e.         Canaliculi: connect lacunae to each other and central canal


4.         Know the chemical composition of bone


5.         Know how bone is formed via intramembranous and endochondral ossification


6.         Know the hormonal control of bone homeostasis

            a.         PTH

            b.         Calcitonin



 Axial Skeleton


1.         For the cranial bones discussed in class, know the location, function, articulations, and any unique modification

a.         Paired

            i.          Parietal

            ii.         Temporal

b.         Unpaired

            i.          Frontal

            ii.         Occipital

            iii.        Sphenoid

            iv.        Ethmoid


2.         Know the four cranial sutures

a.         Coronal

b.         Sagittal

c.         Squamous

d.         Lamboid


3.         For the facial bones discussed in class, know the location, function, articulations, and any unique modification

a.         Unpaired

i.          Mandible

ii.         Vomer

            b.         Paired

                        i.          Maxillae

                        ii.         Zygomatics

                        iii.        Nasals

                        iv.        Lacrimals

                        v.         Palatines


4.         Know how the various bones contribute to the surface and three-dimensional anatomy of the cranial vault and face

            a.         Dorsal, lateral, anterior, posterior, and ventral surfaces

            b.         Floor of the cranial vault

            c.         Eye orbit

            d.         Nasal cavity


Appendicular Skeleton


1.         Know the general of the appendicular skeleton


2.         Know the structure and general characteristics of the pectoral girdle


3.         Know the structure and bones of the arm, forearm, wrist, and hand


4.         Know the structure and general characteristics of the pelvic girdle


5.         Know the structure and bones of the thigh, leg, ankle, and foot




1.         Know how to classify articulations based on structure

            a.         Fibrous

            b.         Cartilaginous

            c.         Synovial


2.         Know how to classify articulations based on function (amount of movement permitted)

            a.         Synarthroses

                        i.          Immoveable

            b.         Amphiarthroses

                        ii.         Slightly moveable

            c.         Diarthroses

                        iii.        Freely moveable


3.         Know the characteristics of each type of joint

            a.         Fibrous

                        i.          Sutures (bones of skull)

                        ii.         Syndesmoses: bones connected by a cord or sheet of fibrous tissue

                        iii.        Gomphoses—peg-in-socket   

            b.         Cartilaginous

                        i.          Synchondroses—bar or plate of hyaline cartilage

                        ii.         Symphysis

            c.         Synovial


4.         Know the structure of a synovial joint

a.         Articular cartilage

                        i.          Covers opposing bones

                        ii.         Shock absorption

            b.         Synovial cavity

                        i.          Fluid filled (synovial fluid)

            c.         Articular capsule

                        i.          Double-lined fibrous capsule

                        ii.         Continuous with periostea of the articulating bones

                        iii.        Inner synovial membrane line fibrous capsule internally

                        iv.        Covers all non-hyaline internal joint surfaces

            d.         Synovial fluid

                        i.          Occupies all free space

                        ii.         Reduces friction between cartilages

iii.        Weeping lubrication—load based release of synovial fluid into and out of cartilage during movement

            e.         Reinforcing ligaments

                        i.          Intrinsic (capsular)—thickened parts of fibrous capsule

                        ii.         Extracapsular—outside capsule

                        iii.        Intracapsular—deep to capsule


5.         Know the other accessory components of synovial joints


6.         Know the different types of synovial joint movement

            a.         Gliding (simple)

                        i.          Surfaces slip or glide over another similar surface

            b.         Angular—increase or decrease angle between bones

                        i.          Flexion—decrease angle on sagittal plane

                        ii.         Extension—increase angle on sagittal plane

                        iii.        Abduction—away from midline

                        iv.        Adduction—toward midline

                        v.         Circumduction—movement describing a conical space

                        vi.        Rotation—turn bone along its own long axis

vii.       Supination and pronation—movement of radius and ulna; s. parallel; p. radius over ulna

viii.      Inversion and eversion—sole of foot medial or lateral

ix.        Protraction and retraction—non-angular anterior and posterior movement in transverse plane

x.         Elevation and depression—lift body part superiorly

xi.        Opposition—thumb


7.         Know the structure of the following synovial joints

a.             Glenoid

b.            Elbow

c.             Coxal

d.            Knee


8.         Know the different types of synovial joints

a.         Plane—articulating surfaces are flat

            b.         Hinge—projection of one bone fits into the trough of another bone

c.         Pivot—conical end of one bone fits into sleeve of another

d.         Condyloid (knucklelike)—oval surfaces fit into complimentary concavity

e.         Saddle

f.          Ball and Socket—spherical head articulates with cuplike socket