Anatomy and Physiology

Exam IV Review Material


Neurobiology, Neurochemistry and Neurotransmission


1.†††††††† Unique neuronal features

††††††††††† a.†††††††† Axons and dendrites

††††††††††† b.†††††††† Amitotic

††††††††††† c.†††††††† Non-zero resting potential

††††††††††† d.†††††††† Morphology


2.†††††††† Terms related to signaling

††††††††††† a.†††††††† Afferent

††††††††††† b.†††††††† Efferent


3.†††††††† Structure of synapse

††††††††††† a.†††††††† Presynaptic terminal

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† Neurotransmitter vesicles

††††††††††††††††††††††† ii.†††††††† Active zone

††††††††††† b.†††††††† Postsynaptic vesicles

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† PSD

††††††††††††††††††††††† ii.†††††††† Neurotransmitter receptors

††††††††††† c.†††††††† Cleft


4.†††††††† Neuronal function

††††††††††† a.†††††††† Characteristics of electrical current used

††††††††††† b.†††††††† Characteristics of an action potential

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† Do not diminish

††††††††††††††††††††††† ii.†††††††† Fixed in size and duration (independent of the amount of current that evokes it)

††††††††††††††††††††††† iii.††††††† All or nothing


5.†††††††† Know how it is possible for neurons to have negative resting membrane potentials

††††††††††† a.†††††††† C. Cytosol and extracellular fluid

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† Aqueous fluids permit formation of ions

††††††††††††††††††††††† ii.†††††††† Charged particles when moved create current

b.†††††††† Phospholipid membrane

††††††††††† i.††††††††† Charged particles cannot pass through membrane

††††††††††† ii.†††††††† Charged particles can therefore be separated

††††††††††† iii.††††††† Separated charges equal potential

††††††††††† c.†††††††† Ion channels permit the movement of charged particles through membrane

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† Selectivity based on size and charge

††††††††††††††††††††††† ii.†††††††† Ion channels are gated

††††††††††††††††††††††† iii.††††††† Movement of charges through ion channels creates current (AP)

††††††††††† d.†††††††† Forces acting on ions

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† Chemical and electrical gradients

††††††††††† e.†††††††† Sodium-potassium pump

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† Creates chemical and electrical gradients

††††††††††††††††††††††† ii.†††††††† 3 Na+ out/2 K+ in

††††††††††††††††††††††† iii.††††††† Chemical and electrical gradients favoring movement of Na+ in

††††††††††††††††††††††† iv.††††††† Chemical gradient favoring movement of K+ out

††††††††††††††††††††††† v.†††††††† Electrical gradient favoring movement of K+ in


6.†††††††† Know how an action potential is initiated and propagated

††††††††††† a.†††††††† Threshold

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† Na+ channels open

††††††††††† b.†††††††† Propagation

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† Passive movement of current along axon opens Na+ channels in neighboring segments

††††††††††† c.†††††††† Saltatory conductance

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† Myelinated axons

††††††††††††††††††††††† ii.†††††††† Nodes of Ranvier

††††††††††††††††††††††† iii.††††††† APís only at unmyelinated segments

††††††††††† d.†††††††† Speed of conductance

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† Axon diameter

††††††††††††††††††††††† ii.†††††††† Saltatory conductance


7.†††††††† Know which ionic conductances contribute to the action potential

††††††††††† a.†††††††† Rising phase

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† Na+ in

††††††††††† b.†††††††† Falling phase

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† K+ out


8.†††††††† Classification of neurotransmitters

††††††††††† a.†††††††† Cholinergic

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† ACh

††††††††††† b. ††††††† Catecholinergic

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† NE

††††††††††††††††††††††† ii.†††††††† Epi

††††††††††††††††††††††† iii.††††††† DA

††††††††††† c. ††††††† Serotonergic

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† 5-HT

††††††††††† d. ††††††† Amino acidergic

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† Glutamate

††††††††††††††††††††††† ii.†††††††† GABA

††††††††††† e. ††††††† Other (neuropeptides, NO, etc.)


9.†††††††† Know how neurotransmitters function

††††††††††† a.†††††††† Ligand-gated ion channels

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† NT binding receptor opens an ion channels

††††††††††††††††††††††† ii.†††††††† Fast

††††††††††††††††††††††† iii.††††††† Glutamate and GABA

††††††††††††††††††††††† iv.††††††† EPSPís and IPSPís

††††††††††† b.†††††††† G-Protein-coupled receptors

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† NT binding receptor activates a G-protein

††††††††††††††††††††††† ii.†††††††† Intracellular (second) message is create

††††††††††††††††††††††† iii.††††††† Second messenger alters neuronal function (modulation)

††††††††††††††††††††††† iv.††††††† Slow

††††††††††††††††††††††† v.†††††††† Most NTís


10.†††††† Know the diffuse neuromodulatory system

††††††††††† a.†††††††† Characteristics

††††††††††† b.†††††††† Location of cell bodies of the neurotransmitters used in this system



Neuroanatomy & Peripheral Nervous System


1.†††††††† Organization of nervous system

††††††††††† a.†††††††† CNS

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† Brain

††††††††††††††††††††††† ii.†††††††† Spinal cord

††††††††††† b.†††††††† PNS

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† Everything outside spinal cord

††††††††††† c.†††††††† Grey verses white matter

††††††††††† d.†††††††† Know the parts of the brain and their functions

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† Cerebral hemispheres

††††††††††††††††††††††† ii.†††††††† Brainstem

††††††††††††††††††††††† iii.††††††† Cerebellum


2.†††††††† Know the structure of the spinal cord

††††††††††† a.†††††††† Spinal nerves

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† Dorsal and ventral rami

††††††††††† b.†††††††† Dorsal root

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† Dorsal root ganglion

††††††††††††††††††††††† ii.†††††††† Afferent sensory

††††††††††† c.†††††††† Ventral root

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† Efferent motor

††††††††††† d.†††††††† Doral and ventral horns

††††††††††† e.†††††††† Central canal


3.†††††††† Know the mechanisms that protect the brain

††††††††††† a.†††††††† Bone

††††††††††† b.†††††††† Meninges

††††††††††††††††††††††† i. †††††††† Dura mater

††††††††††††††††††††††† ii. ††††††† Arachnoid mater

††††††††††††††††††††††† iii. †††††† Pia mater

††††††††††† c.†††††††† Ventricular system

††††††††††† d.†††††††† Circle of Willus

††††††††††† e.†††††††† Blood-brain-barrier


4.†††††††† Know the terms that describe the anatomy of the nervous system


5.†††††††† Know the subcortical structures discussed in lecture


6.†††††††† Know how the spinal cord is organized

††††††††††† a.†††††††† Segments

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† Cervical

††††††††††††††††††††††† ii.†††††††† Thoracic

††††††††††††††††††††††† iii.††††††† Lumbar

††††††††††††††††††††††† iv.††††††† Sacral

††††††††††† b.†††††††† Dermatomes

††††††††††††††††††††††† i.††††††††† Correspondence of body map to spinal segments