Anatomy & Physiology, Fall 2012

Exam I Sample Question Answers

 

Use the following list to answer Question 1.

 

1

Occipital

5

Crural

2

Peroneal

6

Vertebral

3

Scapular

7

Lumbar

4

Abdominal

8

Inguinal

 

1.         The body is sectioned by a midsagittal plane. Which of the regions listed above are not divided by this plane?

 

            a.         1, 2, & 5

            b.         2, 3, 5 & 7      

            c.         2, 5, & 8

            d.         3, 4, 5 & 8

            e.         2 & 5

 

2.         In regards to the terms used to describe the regional anatomy of the body, which of the    following is NOT TRUE?

 

            a.         The calcaneal region is inferior to the popliteal region

            b.         The lumbar region is lateral to the vertebral region

            c.         The axillary region is medial to the thoracic region

            d.         The acromial region is lateral to the cervical region

            e.         The patellar region is superior to the cural region

 

3.         In regards to homeostasis, which of the following is TRUE?

 

            a.         Following a drop in body temperature, shivering may cause body temperature to rise. This is an example of positive feedback.

            b.         Negative feedback systems increase body variables that have dropped below normal ranges of function

            c.         Receptors send efferent information to central processors    

            d.         Negative feedback inhibition is the least common form of homeostatic regulation

            e.         A, B & C

 

4.         In regards to cytoplasmic organelles, which of the following is TRUE?

 

            a.         Protein are modified in the golgi apparatus

            b.         Lipids are synthesized in the rough ER

            c.         Mitochondria are connected to the nucleus via nuclear pores

            d.         Vessicles are released from the cis face of the golgi apparatus

            e.         A & D

 

5.         In regards to membrane function and transport, which of the following is NOT TRUE?

 

            a.         Phospholipid bilayers prevent the movement of lipids through membranes

            b.         Integral proteins may acts as transport molecules

            c.         Clathrin in located in coated pits on the cell surface 

            d.         Phagocytosis moves insoluble materials into the cell

            e.         A & D


Use the following list to answer Question 6 – 7.

 

1

Following G0

5

Following the first meiotic division

2

Following G1

6

Following the second meiotic division

3

Following G2

7

Following mitosis

4

Following S-phase

 

 

6.         When do cells have twice as much DNA as the parent cell?

 

            a.         1, 3 & 4

            b.         3, 4 & 5

            c.         3 & 4              

            d.         4 & 5

            e.         4, 5 & 6

 

7.         When do cells have the same chromosomal makeup as the parent cell?

 

            a.         1, 2 & 3

            b.         1, 2 & 5

            c.         1, 2, 3 & 7

            d.         1, 2 & 7

            e.         1, 2, 5 & 7

 

Use the following list to answer Question 8.

 

1

Prophase of mitosis

5

Prophase 1 of meiosis

2

Metaphase of mitosis

6

Prophase 2 of meiosis

3

Anaphase of mitosis

7

Anaphase 1 of meiosis

4

Telophase of mitosis

8

Anaphase 2 of meiosis

 

8.         Of the phases of cell division listed above, during which are sister chromatids present?

 

            a.         1, 2, 5 & 6

            b.         1, 2, 3, 5 & 6

            c.         1, 2, 3 & 4      

            d.         1, 2, 6 & 7

            e.         1, 2 & 6

 

9.         In regards to meiosis, which of the following is TRUE?

 

            a.         Homologous chromosomes are present during the second meiotic division

            b.         Daughter cells produced during the first meiotic division have the same number amount of DNA as the parent cell has following S-phase

            c.         Chiasmata form between sister chromosomes during Prophase 1     

d.         Following Telophase 1, daughter cells have diploid amount of DNA but

 haploid chromosome number

            e.         C & D

 

10.       A poorly differentiated growth of genetically abnormal cells derived from connective tissue is known as which of the following?

 

            a.         Malignant carcinoma

            b.         Malignant sarcoma

            c.         Benign carcinoma      

            d.         Benign sarcoma

            e.         Hypertrophic tumor

 

11.       Which of the following terms describes a disorder that results from an abnormal change    in cell number?

 

            a.         Neoplasia

            b.         Dystrophy

            c.         Hyperplasia

            d.         Metastasis

            e.         Neoplastic transformation

 

12.       Which of the following parts of the cytoskeleton are made up of actin?

 

            a.         Microfilaments

            b.         Intermediate fibers

            c.         Microtubules

            d.         A & C

            e.         B & C

 

13.       In regards to body cavities and membranes, which of the following is TRUE?

 

            a.         The mediastinum is located in the ventral cavity

            b.         The pelvic cavity is superior to the vertebral cavity

            c.         The parietal layer of the serosa membrane is in contact with the organ which it surrounds

            d.         The diaphragm is inferior to the abdominal cavity

            e.         A & D

 

Use the following table to answer Questions 14 – 15.

 

1

Stratified squamous epithelium

4

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

2

Simple squamous epithelium

5

Columnar epithelium

3

Simple cuboidal epithelium

6

Transitional epithelium

 

14.       Which of the above have nuclei that are spherical and could be found in the urinary bladder?

 

a.         1 & 6

b.         2 & 6

c.         3 & 6

d.         2, 3 & 6

e.         4 & 6

 

15.       For which of the above do the apical surfaces of the cells not always contact a fluid or air?

 

a.         4 only

b.         1 & 4

c.         1, 4, & 6

d.         all of the above

e.         none of the above

 

Use the following table to answer Questions 16 – 17.

 

1

Epidermal layer of the skin

2

Renal tubules

3

A lymphatic vessel

4

Mucosal layer of the trachea

5

Lining the lumen of the small intestine

6

Glomerulus

7

Fallopian tube

8

Respiratory membrane of the lungs

 

16.       Which of the above are locations where pseudostratified columnar cells can be found?

 

a.         2, 3 & 6

b.         3, 6 & 7

c.         4 & 7

d.         4, 6 & 7

e.         4, 6, 7 & 8

 

17.       Which of the above are locations where cells with brush borders can be found?

 

a.         5 only

b.         2 & 5

c.         2, 4 & 5

d.         5 & 6

e.         5, 6 & 7

 

18.       In regards to epithelial tissue, which of the following is TRUE?

 

a.         The apical cell surface connects to neighboring cells

b.         The basilar cell surface contacts epithelial fluid or air

c.         Epithelial cells in a given area all perform a similar function

d.         The basement membrane is composed of primarily of keratinocytes

e.         None of the above

 

19.       Which of the following types of epithelium are not likely to be found in the intestine?

 

            a.         Squamous

            b.         Cuboidal

            c.         Columnar

            d.         Pseudostratified columnar

            e.         a & b

 

20.       For which of the following types of epithelium do the dimensions of the cell height exceed cell width?

 

            a.         Squamous

            b.         Cuboidal

            c.         Columnar

            d.         Pseudostratified columnar

            e.         c & d

 

21.       In regards to skin, which of the following is NOT TRUE?

 

            a.         The epidermis is non-vascular and lacks nervous innervation

            b.         The dermis makes up the majority of skin and consists mostly of loose connective tissue

c.         The hypodermis is the deepest layer and functions primarily to attach the skin to underlying tissue

            d.         The stratum basale usually includes three layers of living cells

            e.         The deepest cell layer is the most mitotically active layer of the epidermis

 

22.       In regards to the microscopic structure of long bones, which of the following is TRUE?

 

            a.         Osteocytes are present in lamella during embryological bone formation

            b.         Canaliculli connect neighboring Haversian canals

            c.         Lacunae are connected by perforating canals

            d.         Compact bone is composed of individual elements known as ostea

            e.         c & d

 

23.       All of the following bones contribute to the formation of the orbit EXCEPT:

 

            a.         Frontal

            b.         Parietal

            c.         Sphenoid

            d.         Zygomatic bone

            e.         b & c

 

24.       Which of the following is (are) in contact with the stratum basale? 

 

            a.         Papillary layer

            b.         Reticular layer

            c.         Dermal papillae

            d.         a & c

            e.         a, b & c

 

25.       Which of the following cells are classified as sensory?

 

            a.         Langerhan’s cells

            b.         Melanocytes

            c.         Keratinocytes

            d.         Merkel cells

            e.         Sudoriferous cells

 

26.       In regards to accessory structures of skin, which of the following is TRUE?

 

            a.         Sebaceous glands are apocrine glands

            b.         Eccrine glands produce a hypotonic solution

            c.         The primary function of sebum is to protect against bacterial infection

            d.         Nails are a modification of the hypodermal layer

            e.         a & c

 

Use the following table to answer Questions 27 – 28.

 

1

Areolar

4

Dense irregular

2

Adipose

5

Cartilage

3

Dense regular

6

Bone

 

27.       Which of the types of connective tissue listed above is characterized as having bundles of collagen running in opposite directions?

 

a.         6 only

b.         4 & 6

c.         4, 5 & 6

d.         3 & 6

e.         5 & 6

 

28.       Which types of connective tissue listed above is characterized as having limited extracellular fluid and is in the hypodermis?

 

a.         1, 2, 3 & 4

b.         2, 3, 4 & 6

c.         2 only

d.         3 & 6

e.         2 & 6

 

29.       Which of the following types of cells are present in adult compact bone?

 

            a.         Osteoblasts

            b.         Osteoclasts

            c.         Osteocytes

            d.         Hematopoietic stem cells

            e.         b & c

 

30.       Which of the following are not secreted by osteocytes?

 

            a.         Osteoid

            b.         Hydroxyapatites

            c.         Proteoglycans

            d.         Glycoproteins

            e.         c & d