Anatomy and Physiology

Exam II Review Material


Exam II will cover all topics covered on Quiz II and topics covered up to and including Monday’s lecture. It will not include Thursday’s lecture topics (i.e., axial muscles).


Axial Skeleton


1.         For the cranial bones discussed in class, know the location, function, articulations, and any unique modification

a.         Paired

            i.          Parietal

            ii.         Temporal

b.         Unpaired

            i.          Frontal

            ii.         Occipital

            iii.        Sphenoid

            iv.        Ethmoid


2.         Know the four cranial sutures

a.         Coronal

b.         Sagittal

c.         Squamous

d.         Lamboid


3.         For the facial bones discussed in class, know the location, function, articulations, and any unique modification

a.         Unpaired

i.          Mandible

ii.         Vomer

            b.         Paired

                        i.          Maxillae

                        ii.         Zygomatics

                        iii.        Nasals

                        iv.        Lacrimals

                        v.         Palatines


4.         Know how the various bones contribute to the surface and three-dimensional anatomy of the cranial vault and face

            a.         Dorsal, lateral, anterior, posterior, and ventral surfaces

            b.         Floor of the cranial vault

            c.         Eye orbit

            d.         Nasal cavity


Appendicular Skeleton


1.         Know the general of the appendicular skeleton


2.         Know the structure and general characteristics of the pectoral girdle


3.         Know the structure and bones of the arm, forearm, wrist, and hand


4.         Know the structure and general characteristics of the pelvic girdle


5.         Know the structure and bones of the thigh, leg, ankle, and foot




1.         Know how to classify articulations based on structure

            a.         Fibrous

            b.         Cartilaginous

            c.         Synovial


2.         Know how to classify articulations based on function (amount of movement permitted)

            a.         Synarthroses

                        i.          Immoveable

            b.         Amphiarthroses

                        ii.         Slightly moveable

            c.         Diarthroses

                        iii.        Freely moveable


3.         Know the characteristics of each type of joint

            a.         Fibrous

                        i.          Sutures (bones of skull)

                        ii.         Syndesmoses: bones connected by a cord or sheet of fibrous tissue

                        iii.        Gomphoses—peg-in-socket   

            b.         Cartilaginous

                        i.          Synchondroses—bar or plate of hyaline cartilage

                        ii.         Symphysis

            c.         Synovial


4.         Know the structure of a synovial joint

a.         Articular cartilage

                        i.          Covers opposing bones

                        ii.         Shock absorption

            b.         Synovial cavity

                        i.          Fluid filled (synovial fluid)

            c.         Articular capsule

                        i.          Double-lined fibrous capsule

                        ii.         Continuous with periostea of the articulating bones

                        iii.        Inner synovial membrane line fibrous capsule internally

                        iv.        Covers all non-hyaline internal joint surfaces

            d.         Synovial fluid

                        i.          Occupies all free space

                        ii.         Reduces friction between cartilages

iii.        Weeping lubrication—load based release of synovial fluid into and out of cartilage during movement

            e.         Reinforcing ligaments

                        i.          Intrinsic (capsular)—thickened parts of fibrous capsule

                        ii.         Extracapsular—outside capsule

                        iii.        Intracapsular—deep to capsule


5.         Know the other accessory components of synovial joints


6.         Know the different types of synovial joint movement

            a.         Gliding (simple)

                        i.          Surfaces slip or glide over another similar surface

            b.         Angular—increase or decrease angle between bones

                        i.          Flexion—decrease angle on sagittal plane

                        ii.         Extension—increase angle on sagittal plane

                        iii.        Abduction—away from midline

                        iv.        Adduction—toward midline

                        v.         Circumduction—movement describing a conical space

                        vi.        Rotation—turn bone along its own long axis

vii.       Supination and pronation—movement of radius and ulna; s. parallel; p. radius over ulna

viii.      Inversion and eversion—sole of foot medial or lateral

ix.        Protraction and retraction—non-angular anterior and posterior movement in transverse plane

x.         Elevation and depression—lift body part superiorly

xi.        Opposition—thumb


7.         Know the structure of the following synovial joints

a.             Glenoid

b.            Elbow

c.             Coxal

d.            Knee


8.         Know the different types of synovial joints

a.         Plane—articulating surfaces are flat

            b.         Hinge—projection of one bone fits into the trough of another bone

c.         Pivot—conical end of one bone fits into sleeve of another

d.         Condyloid (knucklelike)—oval surfaces fit into complimentary concavity

e.         Saddle

f.          Ball and Socket—spherical head articulates with cuplike socket



Muscle Tissue


1.         Know the basic characteristics of smooth, skeletal and cardiac muscle


2.         Know the gross anatomy of a skeletal muscle

a.         Individual fibers are surrounded by endomysium

            b.         Multiple fibers are bundled as fascicles

            c.         Fascicles are bound by collagen sheath

                        i.          Perimysium

            d.         Epimysium then surrounds all fascicles of an entire muscle

            e.         Deep fascia binds muscles into functional groups


3.         Know the microscopic anatomy of skeletal

a.         A bands—dark bands

b.         I bands—light bands

c.         H band (within A band)

d.         M line

e.         Z disc (membrane)

                        i.          Midline in I band


4.         Know the ultrastructure and molecular composition of actin, myosin and associated regulatory proteins


Sliding Theory of Contraction


A.        During relaxed state

1.         Ca2+ concentration in sarcoplasm is low

a.         Ca2+ is stored in sacroplasmic tubules

2.         Troponin-tropomyosin complex attached to actin filament

            a.         Tropomyosin positioned to block myosin binding sites on actin filament

3.         ATP and inactive ATPase bound to myosin head

            a.         Low energy configuration

                        i.          Binding to actin is not possible

B.        Events during contraction

1.         Nerve impulse (afferent signal) from motor neuron generates action potential in nerve cell

            a.         AP propagated along sarcolemma and down T tubules

2.         Myosin ATPase activated

            a.         ATP splits

                        i.          High energy myosin-ADP complex

3.         AP causes release of Ca2+ from sarcoplasmic reticulum

4.         Ca2+ binds to troponin

            a.         Molecular shape of troponin changes

i.          Tropomyosin is removed from binding site of mysosin on the actin filament

            b.         Myosin attaches to actin

5.         Contraction: Potential energy stored in high-energy configuration is used to pivot myosin head

            a.         Myosin head bends as it pulls on actin

            b.         ADP and inorganic phosphate are released from myosin

6.         New ATP attached to myosin head

            a.         Cross bridge simultaneously detaches

            b.         Following death, no ATP and muscle fibers cannot relax

                        i.          Rigor mortis

7.         If no new impulse, Ca2+ is pumped back into sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)

            a.         Relaxation occurs

8.         If Ca2+ present from additional impulse, cycle repeats

            a.         Myosin head “steps” to next binding site on actin


Muscle Function


1.         Know how to describe the following:

            a.         Motor unit

            b.         Muscle twitch

            c.         Graded muscle responses

                        i.          Stimulus frequency

                        ii.         Stimulus strength

            d.         Motor unit summation

            e.         Treppe


2.         Know the various sources of ATP for muscle metabolism


3.         Know the three types of lever systems


4.         Know how to characterize muscles based on fascicle organization