Lecture 1: Anatomical Organization

What are Anatomy and Physiology?

I. Anatomy: Study of the structure of body parts and their relationship to one another

A. Types of Anatomy:

1. Gross

            a. Regional

            b. Systemic

            c. Surface

2. Microscopic

            a. Cellular

            b. Histology

3. Developmental

            a. Embryology

 

II. Physiology: Study of the function of the body’s machinery; need to know underlying anatomy to explain physiology

A. Typed based on specific organ systems

B. Requires understanding of chemistry and physics (next two lectures)

C. Function reflects structure

 

III. Organization of the Human Body: chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organismal

 

 

A. Tissue: similar cells with common function (Chapter 4)

1. Types of tissue: epithelia, muscle, connective, nervous

B. Organ: structure with two or more tissue types (usually all four)

C. Organ System: Organs that work closely with one another to achieve a common function

1. Examples: cardiovascular, digestive, nervous

 

D. Organismal: (highest level) sum of all structural levels working in unison to promote life

 

IV. Maintaining Life

A. Necessary life functions

1. Boundaries

2. Movement

3. Responsiveness

4. Digestion

5. Metabolism

6. Excretion

7. Reproduction

8. Growth

B. Requirements for life

1. Nutrients

2. Oxygen

3. Water

4. Normal body temperature

5. Atmospheric pressure

 

V. Regulation of Bodily Activity

A. Homeostasis: ability to maintain stable internal conditions

1. Most organ systems work in concert to keep condition within a narrow range

            a. Primarily achieved by nervous and endocrine function

 

2. Control system design:

            a. Variable: factor or event being controlled

            b. Mechanisms (three or more)

                        i. Receptor

                        ii. Control center

                        iii. Effector

3. Feedback control

            a. Positive—increase stimulus

            b. Negative—decrease stimulus

4. Negative Feedback: (most common) net effect is system output shuts off or reduces original stimulus’s intensity

            a. Variable changes in the opposite direction of the initial change

            b. Example: glucose regulation

5. Positive Feedback: change proceeds in the same direction as the original stimulus

            a. Not common

            b. Do not require constant adjustment

            c. Events are self-perpetuating

            d. Cascades

            e. Example: blood clotting

 

VI. Anatomical Terminology

A. General Terms:

Superior

Inferior

Anterior

Posterior

Medial

Lateral

Intermediate

Proximal

Distal

Superficial

Deep

B. Regional Terms

Axial: main axis

Appendicular: appendages

 

C. Body Planes

 

1. Sagital

2. Frontal

3. Transverse

 

 

D. Body Cavities

1. Dorsal part of axial portion of body

            a. Cranial

            b. Vertebral

2. Ventral part of axial portion of body

 

            a. Thoracic

 

                        i. Pleural cavities (lungs)

                        ii. Mediastinum

                                    1. Medial: pericardial cavity (heart)

                                    2. Superior: trachea, esophagus and remaining thoracic

b. Abdominopelvic: separated from thoracic by diaphragm; not truly divided (arbitrary)

 

            i. Superior region—abdominal

            ii. Inferior region--pelvic

E. Membranes: serosa

 

1. Parietal serosa

2. Visceral serosa

3. Types

            a. Pericardium parietal and visceral serosa

            b. Pleura parietal and visceral serosa

            c. Peritoneum parietal and visceral serosa