A word from WCD (and Mr Toad) about the course, and this reader.
Hello. This is a picture of me (WCD) and Mr Toad, the genius loci of Toad Hall, located at 36 Union Street.
I'm the one with the beard. Mr Toad is the one with the flower.
Our course this time is pretty complex. We're going to spend the last month or so studying the Augustan idea of "imitation," and the idea of human nature that it implies, both as a moral ideal and a subject for poetry.
Doing that means that we'll be spending a good deal of time reading Horace's Ars Poetica (in Latin) and Boileau's Art poétique (in French) alongside Pope's Essay on Criticism, which is the great poetic statement of Augustan ideas about art and human moral nature.
If you're enrolled in the class, you already read English and French. I know from my e-mail correspondence that about 30% of the class reads both Latin and French. Here, I want to say a word both to those who feel their Latin has gotten rusty and to those who read French but not Latin.
If You Read Latin
The selections from Horace are followed by a dictionary that I've created especially for this reader, with definitions keyed to the words you'll actually be encountering in the selections.
What this means, basically, is that you can take the definition I've given and disregard all the others in your Latin dictionary. For grammatical function, I've given the usual dictionary form -- nominative and genitive for nouns, 1st person present and present infinitive for verbs -- plus, when appropriate, a note about what the word is doing in this sentence.
This "mini-dictionary" should make it incredibly easy for you to read the Ars Poetica selections with good comprehension. I've put a lot of work in on this specialized dictionary, and I want you to repay me by putting in enough time that, with the help of the dictionary, you're "hearing" Horace's voice in the selections.
This is something you ought to be able to do even if you've only had two years of high school Latin: the dictionary is the key to comprehension. Just sit down with a will and put in the time and you will be reading Horace the way you read Pope in English. Trust me.
The test of whether you're putting in the necessary amount of time will be the Latin passages on the weekly quizzes. On these, I will never ask you the grammatical stuff that Latin teachers always want you to specify -- case, number, "ablative of walking counterclockwise in a circle while pouring libations," etc -- but I will ask you commonsense grammatical questions: what noun does this adjective modify? What is the subject of this verb?
These questions will have exactly the same form as those I'm asking about Pope in English. If you really understand the passage, the quiz will be a piece of cake. If you don't -- if you're faking it, or didn't put in the time to read it properly -- you will go down the tubes. But this is also true for all the English poetry we'll be reading.
Don't be nervous about the quizzes. If you are nervous, talk to someone who's taken a course with me before this one. They'll calm you down and tell you how to do well on the quizzes. But do put in your time with the Ars Poetica: Horace is incredible, and this is your chance to make his acquaintance as a poet in a way that you'll probably never have again.
If You Only Read French
One of my main purposes in constructing specialized a Horace dictionary that practically leads a reader through the poetry is to allow even those who don't read Latin to have something of the experience of reading Horace in the original.
I always encourage my students to study languages -- serious literary study in English is simply impossible unless you know Latin, French, and (depending on the period you're studying) either Italian or German -- and I hope that our experiment in trying to make sense of "the Augustan universal" will give you a taste for what it's like to be able to read earlier English literature as it deserves to be read, against the background of Greek and Roman civilization and other European literatures.
Some of you will know Italian or Spanish as well as French. Since French, Italian, and Spanish are simply evolved dialects of Latin -- they are the version of Latin that was spoken in those respective geographical areas when Rome was a world power -- you will be able to make some sense of the Horace just by sitting down with the selections and trying to make sense of them with my customized dictionary as a help.
I've given the meaning of every single word in every Horace selection that we'll be talking about in the course. If you sit down with a selection and piece out the meaning with your own common sense and the dictionary in hand, you'll understand far more than you ever thought you could. And you'll have some experience about what it's like to "think inside" Latin.
All this is simply meant as an invitation to literary and linguistic exploration on your part. I will never quiz the "French only" students on the Horace selections, and you will have an entirely separate assignment on the final paper than your classmates who are writing about the problem of "voice" in Horace and Pope (or, for a few students in the class, all three poets). So the Horace dictionary is from your point of view simply "value added": something you can use to expand your sense of literary and imaginative possibilities as we study the origins and development of Augustan poetry in the 18th century.
The Horatian Voice
Horace, Boileau, Pope
Horace, Ars Poetica, 32-35:
Æmilium circa ludum faber imus et ungues
Now read: Pope, Essay on Criticism, 243-252.
Horace, Ars Poetica, 268-274:
Vos exemplaria Græca
Now read: Pope, Essay on Criticism, 124-129
Horace, Ars Poetica, 309-318
Scribendi recte sapere est et principium et fons:
Now read: Pope, Essay on Criticism, 68-79
Horace, Ars Poetica, 347-353:
Sunt delicta tamen quibus ignovisse velimus;
Now read: Pope, Essay on Criticism, 253-262
Horace, Ars Poetica, 357-364:
Sic mihi, qui multum cessat, fit Chrilus ille,
Now read: Pope, Essay on Criticism, 171-180
Boileau, Art poétique, Canto I, 1-6:
C'est en vain qu'au Parnasse un téméraire auteur
Now read Horace, Ars Poetica, 366-389:
O major juvenum, quamvis et voce paterna
Boileau, Art poétique, Canto I, 7-12:
O vous donc qui, brûlant d'une ardeur périlleuse,
Now read Horace, Ars Poetica, 38-40:
Sumite materiam vestris, qui scribitis, æquam
Boileau, Art poétique, Canto I, 167-180:
J'aime mieux un ruisseau qui sur la molle arène
Now read Horace, Ars Poetica, 289-294:
Nec virtute foret clarisve potentius armis
Boileau, Art poétique, Canto I, 183-207:
Craignez-vous pour vos vers la censure publique?
Now read Horace, Ars Poetica, 419-437:
Ut præco, ad merces turbam qui cogit emendas,
Boileau, Art poétique, Canto IV, 71-90:
Faites choix d'un censeur solide et salutaire,
Now read Horace, Ars Poetica, 438-452:
Quintilio si quid recitares, "Corrige sodes
Now read: Pope, Essay on Criticism, 631-646 and Pope, Essay on Criticism, 141-60.
Boileau, Art poétique, Canto IV, 91-96:
Que votre âme et vos murs, peintes dans vos ouvrages,
Now read: Pope, Essay on Criticism, 530-531
Boileau, Art poétique, Canto IV, 111-126:
Fuyez surtout, fuyez ces basses jalousies,
Now read: Pope, Essay on Criticism, 508-525.
Boileau, Art Poétique, Canto IV, 133-166:
Avant que la raison, s'expliquant par la voix,
Now read Horace, Ars Poetica, 391-407:
Silvestres homines sacer interpresque deorum
Boileau, Art poétique, Canto IV, 223-235:
Pour moi, qui, jusqu'ice nourri dans la satire,
Now read: Pope, Essay on Criticism, 739-744.
ab: away from
abest: is far removed (absum, -esse)
abstinet: stays away from (abstineo, -ere)
actor: plaintiff, one who pleads a cause in Roman law (actor, -oris, m.)
acumen: judgment (acumen, -inis, n. lit. sharpness')
acutum: (a) treble (tone); (acutus, -a, -um)
adlinet: will blot out (adlino, -linere)
aiebat: he would always say
amandus: to be loved; sit amandus ought to be loved or valued'
amares: from being made happy by; (amo, amare, lit. that you should love')
amat: favors; (amo, amare, lit. loves')
ambigue: ambiguously; ambigue dictum what is ambiguously expressed'
ambitiosa: the most pretentious
amicis: (to his) friends; (amicus,-i, m.)
amicitia: friendship; dignus amicitia worthy of friendship'; (amicitia, -ae, f.)
amicum: friend; see verumque
Amphion: legendary Greek poet and singer, said to have been able to move stones through the magic of his song
animi: (those whose) minds
animis: (our) minds; (animus, -i., m.)
animo: the heart; ex animo from the heart'
animos: spirits; see mares
annum: year (annum,-i, n.)
Apollo: Greek god of poetry
arcus: the bow (i.e., bow used by an archer); (arcus, -us, m.)
arguit: he will find fault with; (arguo, arguere)
argutum: acute, penetrating (argutus, -a, -um_
Aristarchus: a second Aristarchus (famous Alexandrine critic)
armis: arms, weapons (arma, -orum, n. pl.)
assentatores: flatterers (adsentator, -oris, m.)
atris: horrible, depressing (ater, -tra, -trum, lit. black')
atrum: a black
audet: (nonetheless) dares to (audeo, -ere)
Aulus: see Cascellius
aure: with our ear (i.e., as one hears' measures in music); (auris, -is, f.)
aures: the ears (auris, -is, f.)
aut: or; aut . . . aut: either . . . or
æquam: equal (as in equal to your strength')
ære: in bronze (aes, aeris, n.)
beatus: (this) happy (man); beatus, -a, -um, adj. as noun)
bella: wars (bellum,-i, n.); Martia bella wars presided over by Mars as the god of war'
bellum: war; in bellum into war'
blanda: compelling (blandus, -a, -um, lit. having a winning address')
bonum: good (as a writer); Choerilus, quem bonum: read as Choerilus, who when he does manage to write a good line'
bonus: the good (Homer);
calamo: with a pen (calamus,-i, m. lit. reed')
campestribus: having to do with the Campus Martius in Rome, where martial games were held (campester, -tris, -tre)
cantor: singer (i.e., poet); (cantor, -oris, m.)
capiat: will attract, delight (capio, -ere, lit. seize')
capillos: hair (capillus,-i, m.)
carmen: a poem; (carmen, -inis, n.)
carmina: poems (n. acc. pl.)
carmine: in a poem
carminibus: (and to their) songs
Cascellius: Cascellius Aulus, a great Roman orator of the Ciceronian period
castigavit: rigorously criticized (castigo, -are)
causarum: of legal cases (causa, -ae, f.)
cavit: guarded against (caveo, -ere, cavit)
cædibus: from slaughters (of each other); (cædes, -is, f.)
cena: meal, banquet; (cena, -ae, f.)
census: (he is) rated on the tax rolls
certis: in certain (things); (certus, -a, -um)
cessat: is mediocre (cesso, -are)
chartæ: (philosophical) writings; (charta, -ae, f. lit. paper, papyrus'
chorda: the string (of a lyre or other stringed instrument); (chorda, -ae, f.)
Chrilus: Chrilus (a bad poet)
circa: around, in the neighborhood of
clamabit: he will cry out, exclaim (exclamo, -are)
claris: (by its) illustrious or renowned; parum claris parts too unclear'
coercuit: has (not) pruned (i.e., revising a poem as one prunes a vine to improve its growth; (coerceo, -ere)
coget: will bring pressure (on the poet); (cogo, -ere)
cogit: gathers (turbam: a crowd')
columnæ: the kiosks on which Roman booksellers posted the titles of new books (column, -ae, f.)
concedi: is to be allowed; (concedo, -cedere)
concessere: permit or put up with; see concedi
concubitu: sexual coupling, copulation (concubitus, -us, m.)
condes: you do compose (poetry); (condo, -are)
conditor: founder (here, Amphion, who built the walls of Thebes with his music)
conducti: (who are) hired mourners (a custom at Roman funerals)
conscripti: a senator (conscriptus, -I, m.)
consultus: i.e., consultus iuris, a lawyer
convenientia: suitable characteristics (part. convenio, -ire)
coronæ: circle of spectators (corona, -ae, lit. circle')
corrige: correct this! (corrigo, -ere, imperative)
crassum: thick, dense. (Here, pungent,' as of an air thick with strong perfume.) (crassus, -a, -um
cui: to someone
cuique: to each (read as cuique personae)
culpabit: will find fault with (culpo, -are, lit. blame')
culullis: cups, glasses (of wine); multis urgere culullis to urge on to drink many glasses); (culullus,-i, m.)
dare: to cast (light); (do, dare, lit. to give'); dare jura to give laws'
debeat: he owes (lit. should give,' subj. debeo, -ere)
decessit: fall short of (decedo, -cedere, lit. cease, subside')
decies: ten times over
defendere: to defend
delere: to delete, eliminate (deleo, -ere)
delicta: faults (errors of taste); (delictum,-i, n.)
delictum: the fault (in your poem); (delictum,-i, n.)
deorum: of the gods (deus,-i, m.)
derisor: a flatterer, sycophant (derisor, -oris, m. lit. someone who mocks')
derisum: someone who has been made a fool of (derideo, -ere, part.)
descendat: let it be passed over for judgment (descendo, -ere, lit. penetrate' [the ears of])
deterruit: deterred (deterreo, -ere, lit. frighten away from')
di: gods (deus,-i, m.)
dicam: I will [not] say (ironic); (dico, -ere)
dices: you will say (nihil: nothing): i.e., will write nothing as a poet
dicet: non dicet he will not say'
dictæ: were spoken
dicto: witty saying, joke; (dictum,-i, n.)
dictum: maxim, (wise) saying; (dico, -ere, part.); see also ambigue
dictus: he was said (to); (dico, -ere, part.)
dicunt: say (what is proper or fitting)
dicuntur: are said to
didicit: has learned (disco, discere, didici)
dies: days (see multa)
digitis: (by counting on) your fingers: i.e., as one counts measures in music (digitum,-i, n.)
discive: (or) quoit (ring used in a Roman game resembling horseshoes (discus,-i, m.)
discors: discordant, out of tune (discors, -cordis, adj.)
diserti: (from) the eloquent (disertus, -a, -um)
diu: for a long time
diurna: (and also) by day (diurnus, -a, -um, adj. as noun)
dives: rich (dives, -itis, adj.)
divinis: (to) divine; divinis vatibus to poets considered as divinely inspired'
doctum: (a) learned (in earlier poetry); (doctus, -a, -um)
dolentibus: than those who mourn (doleo, -ere, part.)
donare: to give
dormitat: falls asleep at the wheel (as we would say)i.e., seems to have slipped up through inattention
ducent: will lead
ducere: to summon; nolite ducere do
not bring (him) in'
ducis: of a military commander; (dux, ducis, m.)
duros:harsh (verses); (durus, -a, -um)
emendas: for the purpose of buying (ad merces emendas)
enim: for; clamabit enim for he will cry out'
eripere: set free; (eripio, -ripere, lit. snatch away')
erit: there will be; erit quae: read as there will be one')
esse: to be
est: is (sum, esse, fui)
et: and; et . . . et: both . . . and
etiam: even, also
ex: from, out of
exacuit: stirred up (exacuo, -uere, -ui, -itum)
exceptumque : and who has been treated; (excipio, -cipere)
exemplar: (literary) model; (exemplar, -aris, n.)
exemplaria: examples (of poetry and drama)
expertum: (you) having already tried (experior, -periri)
exprimet: model, make an imitation of (exprimo, -primere)
faber: workman, craftsman
faciesve: (or) will make (i.e., creat as a poet) (facio, -ere)
faciunt: do (what is proper or fitting)
factos: made; versus factos tibi verses made by you'
fallant: allow to deceive; (fallo, -ere, subj.)
fas: fas est: it is allowable
fænore: what gains interest as a loan
(fænus, -oris, n. lit. what is bred')
ferre: to bear or carry; (fero, ferre)
fiet: he will be
fingeris: you have been trained; (fingo, fingere, lit. shaped')
finis: the end (of long labors)
fit: appears: (fio, fiere, lit. becomes')
foedo: abominable, horrible
fons: source; (fons, fontis, m. lit. fountain')
formidat: be afraid of, dread (formido, -are)
frater: a brother; (frater, -tris, m.)
frustra: in vain
fudit: poured forth (in haste); (fundo, fundere, fudi, fusum)
fuit: was; fuit haec sapientia this was wisdom'
funere: at a funeral; (funus, funeris, n.)
grata: favors (sought from someone in power or authority)
gratas: pleasing (but here with the implication that the gratas menses pleasing banquet' is agreeable because it is a meal given gratis by the host to his guests); (gratus, -a, -um)
gravem: (a) low (tone) in music; (gravis, -e)
Græca: Greek (adj); see exemplaria
hæ: these; hae nugae these "little" faults'
hæc: this one
hinc: from this source
his: these; pallescet super his he will turn pale over these verses of yours'
hos: these things; post hos: i.e., after the deeds of Orpheus and Amphion
hospes: a guest (hospes, -itis, m.)
humana: human (humanus, -a, um)
id: that; see iudicium
idem: (I) the same (person)
ignovisse: to be forgiven (ignosco, ignoscere)
ille: he (that person)
imitabitur: will imitate, reproduce, copy; (imitor, -ori)
imitatorem: poet writing in the spirit of earlier models; (imitator, -oris, m.); note that our Augustan term "imitation" derives from this Latin meaning
implicitum: someone who is entangled in
impune: with impunity (i.e., without having to worry that anyone wil rebuke them for it)
imum: to the bottom (imus, -a, -um, adj. as noun)
imus: the most obscure
in: in, into
inanem: worthless, useless; (inanis, -e, adj.)
incidere: to engrave
incomptis: the inelegant (verses); (incomptus, -a, -um, lit. unkempt,' as with hair)
incudi: to the anvil; (incus, incudis, f.); see reddere
incuria: (mere) carelessness; (incuria, -ae, f.)
indignor: become indignant; (indignor, -ari)
indoctusque (and he who is) unskilful (indoctus, -a, -um)
inertes: clumsly, unskilful; (iners, -ertis, adj.)
infelix: (but will be) unsuccessful; (infelix, -icis, adj.)
ingenuus: (he is a) free-born Roman (ingenuus, -a, -um)
insignis: the world-renowned (insignis, -e, lit. illustrious')
insumebat: he would waste; (insumo, -sumere, lit. expend')
inter-: see noscere
intus: in your desk; (lit. at home,' chez vous')
inurbanum: coarse, crude; (inurbanus, -a, -um)
inventumque: (and) created; (inventus, -a, um, part. invenio, lit. discovered')
invita: unwillingly; verba non invita: read as the words (will) without effort; (invitus, -a, -um); also, see Minerva
ire: to go (to his house to praise his poems);
jubebat: he would command (you); (iubeo, -ere)
jubebo: I will advise (iubeo, -ere)
jubet: invites, encourages
judicis: of a judge; (iudex, -icis, m.); Maeci judicis of Maecius, who is a good critic'
judicium: (good) judgment; id iudicium that much good judgment'; (iudicium,-i,m.)
jura: laws (ius, juris, n.)
juris: see consultus
juvandis: for the purpose of delighting (iuvo, -are, w. noun as subj.)
juvenum: of (two) young men; (iuvenis, -is, m.); Horace's Ars Poetica is addressed to his young friends the Piso brothers, one of whom is writing a long dramatic poem)
labor: the work or toil; (labor, -oris, m.)
laborant: they (the kings) are working hard (to put to the test); (laboro, -are)
latentes: lying hidden; (lateo, -ere, part.)
Latium: Latium, the part of Italy in which Rome is situated (see map in The Romans)
laudatore: than someone who praises (your poetry)
laudavere: praised, applauded (laudo, -are)
lætitiæ: joy, gladness (lætitia, -ae, f.); see plenum
leges: laws (lex, legis, f.)
legitimumque: (and) a regular or proper (legitimus, -a, -um)
lenire: to tame (lenio, -ire, lit. to soothe')
lepido: from a (polished, sophisticated); (lepidus, -a, -um)
levi: see paupere
liber: (he is) of age; (liber, -era, -erum, lit. "uncontrolled')
limæ: of the file (i.e., of the work needed to file away' the unnecessary parts of a poem; (lima, -ae, f.)
lingno: on wood (i.e., on wooden tablets, so that the laws may be made known to the people)
lingua: language; (lingua, -ae, f.); quam lingua as much for its language'
litibus: lawsuits; (lis, litis, f.)
litura: erasures (made to improve a poem); (litura, -ae, f.)
longius: farthe away
longo: (a) long (work)
longorum: (of) long; longorum operum of long labors'
luce: the light; (lux, lucis, f.)
lucem: light; (lux, lucis, f.)
lucrum: gain, profit; ad lucrum for what they can get out of it'; (lucrum,-i, n.)
ludere: to practice fighting as a soldier or gladiator (ludo, -ere, lit. to play')
ludum: a school for gladiators; (acc.sg. ludus,-i, m.)
ludusque: (and) festivals; (ludus,-i, lit. games')
lyræ: on the lyre; Musa lyrae sollers the Muse so skilful on the lyre'
maculis: (at a few) faults, blemishes; (macua, -ae, f.)
magis: more greatly
major: older (of two)
mala: errors, evils; (malum,-i,n.)
male: badly; see male tornatos
malles: (if) you preferred; (malo, malle)
manus: the hand (as in the hand striking the string'); (manus, -us, f.)
mares: the manly spirits (i.e., courage); (mas, aris, m. lit. males')
maritis: to married people; (maritus, -a, -um, adj as noun)
Martia: see bella
materiam: the subject of a literary work; (materia, -ae, f.); (219ers: remember Prufrock's here's no great matter'?)
Mæci: of Mæcius, a competent judge of poetry
medium: a (mere) average (ability); (medium,-i, n.)
melius: better; melius posses that you could do better'
melle: (mixed with) honey; (mel, mellis. n.)
membranis: parchments (on which the poems are written); (membranum,-i, n.)
memor: read as (and) remember (it)'
mendacem: false, deceitful; mendacem amicum false friend'
mens: the mind (mens, mentis, f.); ea mens that much good sense'
mensas: banquet; (mensa, -ae, f., lit. tables' or courses of a meal)
merces: goods, wares; see emendas
mero; with strong wine; (merus,-i, m. lit. wine unmixed with water')
Messalæ: (from the eloquent) Messala, a famous Roman lawyer and orator
mihi: to me
minabitur: it is aimed at; (minor, -ari, lit. threaten')
Minerva: goddess of poetry; invita Minerva if Minerva is unwilling to inspire you'
mirabor: I would be amaze
mirati: having admired; (miror, -ari)
miror: I look at in amazement; (miror, -ari)
missi: sent out (missus, -a, -um, part. misso)
modis: verses (modus,-i, m.) lit. "rhythmical measures"
modo: only (as in if only')
moliri: to build; (molior, -ire, dep. lit. to construct with labor')
molles: soft, wavy; (mollis, -e, adj.)
monstrata: point out, shown; via monstra the way was shown'
mora: the delay (i.e., needed to polish a poem); (mora, -ae, f.)
morumque: and of manners; (mos, moris, m.)
movere: to move
movetur: (appears) to be moved
multa: many; multa dies many days' (i.e., a long time); multa litura many an erasure'
multum: often, frequently
Musa: Muse; see lyrae
mutanda: things that are to be altered
natum: created, designed; (natus, -a, -um, part. nascor, lit. born')
natura: nature (natura, -ae, f.)
ne: not; ne resum tollant so that they will not laugh'
nec: nor; nec Latium foret nor would Latium be'
negares: you might deny; (nego, -are)
neque: neither (does)
nesciet: he does not know how (nescio, -scire)
nescit: does not know how; see qui nescit
nimium: too much, excessively
nitent: shine forth (niteo, -ere)
nocturna: by night; (nocturnus, -a, um, adj. as adv.)
nolito: do not
nomen: fame; (nomen, -inis, n. lit. name')
non: not, (does) not; non . . . non . . .: neither . . . nor . . . nor
nonumque: (and until) the ninth (annum: year')
noscere: to distinguish between (internoscere)
nostras: our own (i.e., Horace's)
notabit: he will mark out
nugæ: trifles; in nugae about tiny things'
nullum: not a; see verbum
numeros: verses (numerus,-i,m., poetic measure)
nummis: in money; dives nummis positis in fænore rich in money lent out at interest'
nummorum: of money; (lit. of nummi,' a common Roman coin)
ob: because of; ob hoc because of that'
obrepere: to steal over (like sleep); (obreop, -repere)
obscurum: gloom, darkness; (obscurus, -a, -um, neut. As noun)
oculis: from (his) eyes; ex amicis oculis from his sympathic eyes'
offendam: should I offend [(amicum) a friend]
offendar: will [not] take offense
offenderet: had not offended (i.e., if our poets had not been so lazy)
offendunt: are offensive
officium: duty; (officium,-i, n.)
olim: hereafter (i.e., in the future)
omni: (from) every
operam: pains, labor (opera, -ae, f.)
operi: a literary work; (opus, operis, n.)
operis: of (his) work
operum: of labors completed (i.e., of planting, harvesting, etc.)
oppida: towns; (oppidum,-i, n.)
ornamenta: decorations (i.e., fancy language'); ornamentum,-i, n.)
Orpheus: legendary poet and singer who was said to have held the wild beasts spellbound with his music
ostendere: to show, make known; (ostendo, -ere)
pallescet: he will grow pale (i.e., pretend to be profoundly moved); (palleo, -ere)
papaver: poppy (seeds), which do not improve the taste of bitter Sardinian honey; (papaver, -eris, n.)
parens: a parent; (parens, -entis)
partes: qualities; quae partes what are the qualities'; (pars, partis, f.)
parum: too little, insufficiently; see also claris
paterna: paternal (of a father); (paternus, -a, -um)
patienter: patiently (patiens, -entis)
patriæ: (to his) country; (patria, -ae, f.)
patris: of (your) father; (pater, patris, m.)
paucis: (at a) few; (paucus, -a, -um)
paulum: (by only) a little; (paulum,-i, n. acc. as adv.)
paupere: a poor man; levi paupere: a poor man with a bad credit rating
pede: with (his) foot; (pes, pedis, m.)
per: through; per te in or by yourself'
perfectum: see unguem
persæpe: very often
personae: (to a) character (in a literary work); (persona, -ae)
perspexisse: to have taken a close view of (i.e., discover the real character of); (perspicio, -ere)
pictura: a painting, picture; (pictura, -ae, f.)
Pieriis: inspired by the muses (Pieris, -ides, daughter of Pieros)
pilæ: ball (used in a game); (pila, -ae, f.)
Plautinos: Plautus's; see numeros et sales
plenum: full; plenum lætitiæ full of joy'
plorant: cry, lament; (ploro, -are)
plura: a great many [excellent things]; (plus, pluris, vide. multus, -a, -um)
poema: a poem; (poema, -atis, m.)
poesis: the art of composing poetry; (poesis, -is, f.)
poeta: poet; (poeta, -ae, m.)
poetarum: of (our) poets
Pompilius: sanguis Pompilius descendants of Numa Pompilius'
ponere: to put together; (pono, -ere)
poscentique: (and) to someone who was asking for; (part. posco, -ere)
positis: having been hidden away; (pono, ponere,
posui, positum lit lay away'); nummis positis: see nummis
post: a little later (lit. afterwards')
potentius: more powerful, greater
poterat: could (just as well) have
poterunt: will be able to; (possum, posse, potui)
præco: an auctioneer, one who sells his wares in public; (præco, -onis, m.)
præsertim: (and perhaps) above all
prece: prayer (here, a sung devotion); (prex, precis, f.)
prematur: and let (your poem) be kept unpublished; (premo, -ere, lit suppressed')
pretio: (in high) esteem; (pretium,-i, n., lit. price, value')
principium: foundation, first principle of; (principium,-i, n.)
privatis: private (things affecting only the individual); (privatus, -a, -um, adj. as noun)
pro: for, on behalf of
proavi: ancestors (proavus, -I, m.)
profanis: (from) profane things; (profanus, -a, -um, adj. as noun)
prohibere: to prohibit
provisam: having been foreseen (see rem); (provideo, -ere)
prudens: sensible; (prudens, -entis, adj.)
publica: public matters (things affecting the entire community); (publicus, -a, -um, adj. as noun)
pudori: a (misplaced) sense of modesty; (pudor, -oris, m.)
quantum: as much as
quas: which; maculis quae faults which'
quæ: one (which)
quædam: another one (lit. a certain one')
quem: which; whom; he whom
quemque: see unumquemque
qui: he (who); qui nescit yet he knows nothing about'; qui scribitis: see scribitis
quid: what, the thing which; si quid if you (write) anything; quid ferre recusant what (your shoulders) are unable to bear'
quidni?: "and why not?" (I can hear someone asking)
quiescit: lies low (i.e., does not expose himself); (quiesco, -ere)
quin: so as (to stop you)
Quintilio: to Quintilius Varus, a noted critic)
quo: with what; quo amore with what love'; quo vellet to the place that he wished' (them to be in)
quod: carmen quod: any poem which
quodcumque: whatever (thing or object)
quondam: once upon a time (lit. formerly')
rabidosque: (and the) ferocious; (rabidus, -a, -um, lit. furious')
rebus: in [certain] things; (res, rei, f.)
recidet: he will lop off; (recido, -ere)
recte: rightly, properly, well; (adv., see scribendi)
rectum: what is right or sound; (rectus, -a, -um, adj. as noun)
recusent: refuse (are unable to); (recuso, -are, lit. be reluctant to')
reddere: to attribute to (a character); (reddo, -ere); reddere incudi to return to the anvil' (as with a piece of bronze that needs reworking)
reddit: give back, make (as in make a sound'); see sonum
reges: kings (rex, regis, m.)
regum: of kings; gratia regum favors sought from kings'
remittit: gives off, makes (a sound); (remitto, -ere)
remotus: free from; (remotus, -a, -um, lit far from')
repertus were invented; (reperio, -ire, lit. discovered')
reprehendet: will find fault with; (reprehendo, -ere)
reprehendite: reject, refuse to accept (imperative)
res: subject (of a literary work); res, rei, f.)
respicere: to look back to; (respicio, -ere)
risu: (with an amazed) laugh
risum: a laugh; (risus, -us, m.)
rivali: any rival (i.e., you may be your own greatest admirer)
rorem: tears; (ros, roris, m., lit. dew')
sacer: holy; (sacer, sacra, sacrum); sacer Orpheus Orpheus of divine powers'
sacra: sacred things (n. pl. adj. as noun)
sales: jokes; (sal, salis, m., lit salt,' fig. wit')
saliet: he will jump around; (salio, salire)
sanguis: blood; see Pompilius
sapere: to have good judgment, to be wise; (sapio, sapere)
sapis: you are wise; (sapio, -ere)
Sardo: Sardinian (find Sardinia on your map of Roman provinces)
saxa: the stones; (saxum, -a, n.)
sciet: (if such a man) should know how
scimus: know (how to); (scio, scire)
scit: (he) knows; scit quantum does he know as much'
scribendi: of writing (composing poetry); (scribo, -ere)
scribitis: (those of you who) write (poetry)
scripseris: should write; (scribo, -ere, lit. will have written')
secernere: to distinguish between; (secerno, -cernere)
semel: once, one time
seponere: distinguish; to tell one thing from another; (sepono, -ere)
sequentur: will follow (read as verba sequentur); (sequor, sequi, secutus)
seria: serious; seria mala serious errors'
seu: whether; seu . . . seu: if either . . . or
si: if; si quid recitares if you ever read anything'
signum: mark; atrum signum a heavy black line'
silvestres: wild; (silvestris, -e, adj. silvestres homines primitive men')
sinistre: deceitfully (lit. wrongly')
sit: ought to be (see amandus officium); (subj. esse); ne sit tibi pudori so that you should not be embarrassed' (about trying your hand at poetry)
Socraticæ: Socratic (i.e., the writings of Socrates' school of philosophy)
sodes: if you please (contr. of si audes')
sollers: the skilful (sollers, -ertis)
somnum:drowsiness, sleep; (somnus,-i, m.)
sono: with the sound (sonus, -I, m.)
sonum:rhythm, cadence; (sonum, -i., m. lit. sound'); sonum reddit make the sound'
sortes: divinely inspired prophecies; (sors, sortis, f.)
spisse: thickly (i.e., thickly crowded with spectators)
spondere: to sponsor or provide security for a loan
stes: you stand; (sto, stare, subj. lit. if you should stand'
stillabit: he will cause tears to trickle; (stillo, -are)
sumite: choose; (sumo, -ere, lit. take up')
summa: in the total effect (summa, -ae, f., sc. res)
summam: sum (of money); see equestrem
summo: the highest point of achievement; (summum, -i., n.)
sunt: there are
super: over (i.e., in response to)
symphonia: music; (symphonia, -ae, f.)
tamen: however; sed tamen but nevertheless'
te: you (acc.)
temptata: were asked for; (tempto, -ere, lit. make trial of')
teque: yourself; teque et tua yourself and your own works'
terque: and three times
terram: the ground; (terra, -ae, f. lit. earth')
terve: (or even) three times
testudinis< of (his) lyre (i.e., instrument to which ancient poets recited their verses); (testudo, -inis, f.)
Thebanæ: of Thebes
tibi: to you, by you, to yourself; tibi est you have'
tigres: the tigers
tolerabile: passable, tolerable; (tolerabilis, -e)
tollant: should raise up (a laugh); (tollo, -ere, subj. w. ne)
tolle: take, accept; (tollo, tollere, imperative, as in Augustine's famouse "tolle, lege")
tornatos: (badly) made; male tornatos badly turned' (as on a lathe)
torquereto put to the test; (torqueo, ere, lit stretch on the rack')
totum: the whole; (totus, -a, um, adj. as noun)
transverso: drawn across (it)
trochive: (or) hoop [used in a Roman game]; (trochus,-i, m.)
tu: you (nom. sg.)
tua: see teque
tundet: he will pound; (tundo, -ere)
turbam: see cogit
Tyrtæusque: (and) Tyrtæus, the great Greek poet of war
ultra: in addition; see verbum
unctum: a rich feast; (unctus, -a, -um, neut. as noun0
unguem: detail [lit. even to the fingernails']
unguentum: perfume, ointment; (unguentum,-i, n.)
ungues: fingernails; (unguis, -is, m.)
unumquemque: every one
urbis: of the city; Thebanae urbis of the city of Thebes'; (urbs, urbis, f.)
urgere: see culullis
ut: (is) like; as; in the same way as
utrumque: both, each of the two; see numeros et sales
vago: promiscuous, indiscriminate; (vagus, -a, -um, lit. wandering')
valeant: might be strong enough to; (valeo, -ere)
vatibus: (to) poets considered as divinely inspired beings; (vates, -is, m.f., lit. soothsayer')
velimus: we should wish (subj. volo, velle, volui)
vellet: that he wished; see quo vellet
venit: was given to; (venio, -ire, lit. came')
verbaque: (and) the words (verbum,-i, n.)
verbum: a word; nullum ultra verbum not a word more'
vergit: sinks down; (vergo, vergere, lit. turns')
vero: indeed; si vero but if, indeed'; vero laudatore one who praises in truth' (i.e., who means it)
versate: turn over (leaves of a book); (imperative of verso, -are); versate diu consider for a long time' (versate = turn over in your mind')
versibus: with their verses
versus: verses (poetry); (versus, -us, m.); see factos
vertere: to correct (it); quam vertere than to correct it'
verum: but in truth
verumque: and a true; verum amicum a true friend'
vestri: your (pl.); vester, -tra, -trum)
via: road, path; via vitae course of life'
victu: food; (victus, -us, m.)
vir: man; vir bonus an honest man' (vir, viri, m.)
viribus: (to your) strength; (vires, -ium, f. pl.)
virtute: in ability; (virtus, -tutis); virtute potentius: greater by reason of military prowess'
vitæ: of life; (vita, -ae, f.)
vitioque: vice, vicious habit; vitioque: read as and from every vice"
vivas: living, true to life; (vivus, -a, -um)
voces: voices (i.e. registers of literary or poetic expression); (vox, vocis, f.)
voles: you are willing to
volet: would prefer (volo, velle, lit. wishes, desires to)
volpe: a deceitful exterior; (volpes,-is, f., lit. a fox')
volt: (vult) wishes, wants
vos: you (pl.); you, my friends
vox: voice (of a father giving advice); (vox, vocis, f.)